Venezia, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, francese Z 21 (257)
Contiene l’Entrée d’Espagne.
Segnatura: Francese Z. 21 (257).
Origine: area veneta.
Data: metà del XIV secolo (Bisson 2008, 94).
Supporto: pergamena morbida, di qualità mediocre, che presenta piccoli fori (ff. 14, 123, 124, 184, 192, 214, 236, 261, 287, 291), alcune lacerazioni (ff. 91, 162, 168, 195, 220), e diverse gore sul margine inferiore.
Numero di carte: ff. II, 304, II.
Formato: 285 x 185 mm.
Fascicolazione: I-V8 (1-40), VI8 (41-47), VII-X8 (48-79), XI8 (80-86), XII-XX8 (87-158), XXI4 (159-162), XXII-XXVIII8 (163-218), XXIX4 (219-221), XXX-XXXIX8 (222-302). I ff. 294, 303 e 304 sono fogli singoli non appartenenti ad alcun fascicolo. I fascicoli VI e XI mancano di un foglio, tagliato rispettivamente tra i ff. 41-42 e 81-82; in entrambi i casi si verifica una lacuna nel testo. Il fascicolo XXI è un binione che contiene la grande miniatura dei ff. 160v-161r, in corrispondenza del centro del manoscritto. L’ultimo foglio del fascicolo XXIX è stato tagliato. Alla fine di ciascun fascicolo è collocato il richiamo, a volte decorato a penna, posto al centro del margine inferiore. Sono privi di richiamo i fascicoli XXI, XXVIII, XXXIII (ff. 162v, 218v, 253v). Il richiamo di f. 269v non corrisponde a causa della perdita di un fascicolo. Cfr. Bisson 2008, 94.
Rigatura: a mina di piombo con fori visibili.
Mise en page: Lo specchio di scrittura è di 185×110 mm. Margini: est. 40, int. 35, sup. 25, inf. 75 mm. Il testo è disposto a piena pagina su 32 linee, con la frequente inserzione di miniature.
Scrittura: Scritture gotiche librarie italiane ad opera di tre copisti. Il primo scrive da f. 1r a f. 110v e da f. 161r a f. 242r; la sua scrittura è rotondeggiante con variazioni anche significative nel disegno delle lettere. Il secondo copista scrive da f. 111r a f. 160r e da f. 242r a f. 303r, la sua scrittura è più ordinata e spigolosa, dalle lettere allungate, gli occhielli stretti e con una maggiore distinzione nello spessore dei tratti. Un terzo copista aggiunse in seguito i 131 versi finali (ff. 303r-304r). I fogli iniziali del codice furono corretti da una quarta mano. Cfr. Bisson 2008, 95.
Mani: tre mani attesero alla trascrizione del codice, ed una quarta ne corresse i fogli iniziali.
Legatura: marciana. Misure 300×190 mm. Sul dorso si legge: CONQ. D’ESP. PAR CHAR. MAG. Sulla controguardia anteriore le collocazioni antiche: Arm. C – Th. III e Arm. LV – Th. 2, successivamente cancellate e sostituite dalla collocazione CIV 5 e infine AB 4 (1). In alto a sinistra la collocazione attuale: Mss. Francesi – Fondo Antico n. 21 – 257. Cfr. Bisson, 2008, ibidem.
Foliazione: settecentesca in cifre arabe, in alto a destra, sul recto di ciascun foglio. Rimangono tracce di una numerazione a registro, in rosso e in nero, sul recto dei fogli, presso il margine esterno. In molti casi la rifilatura l’ha eliminata.
Decorazione: Il ms. marciano è notevole per il suo corredo illustrativo. Esso è decorato infatti da 375 miniature (il cui regesto completo si trova in Bisson 2008, 95-101) variamente disposte: a metà di una colonna, ad occupare il margine inferiore, a piena pagina. Le immagini seguono puntualmente il testo e danno luogo ad un’illustrazione continua definita a «petits films» (Lejeune-Stiennon, 1966, I, 246). All’apparato decorativo hanno atteso quattro diversi miniatori di area veneto-emiliana, di ineguale valore: particolarmente notevole è il terzo (dal verso del f. 84, eccetto i ff. 160v-161r), cui si devono anche due delle quattro miniature a piena pagina (ff. 161v-162r).
Le quattro diverse mani che intervengono nella decorazione sono facilmente distinguibili: la prima illustra il testo fino al f. 29v con uno stile semplice, in cui le scene sono scarsamente dettagliate, e poco prospettiche, e l’uso dei colori è vivace, ma non raffinato. La seconda mano si inserisce, al fianco della prima, sempre al f. 29v, e si occupa di illustrare il duello fra Rolando e Feragu, con lo sfondo della torre di Najera. Si tratta ancora di disegni semplici, ma estremamente efficaci, dove trova spazio un’attenzione fisiognomica per il ritratto. Dal f. 83r interviene il terzo illustratore che prosegue fino alla fine del volume e che lascia la sua firma, Rossi, nella cornice della miniatura al f. 161v (cfr. De Mandach 1989, 183). Si tratta di un illustratore pieno di verve che sa animare le scene di un’efficace vita drammatica. Egli riesce nel ristretto spazio delle sue vignette ad ottenere effetti larghi nelle composizioni e negli scenari. Il suo originale vigore nel dare forma figurata alla materia del poema è ben visibile nel modo di raffigurare l’affollarsi dei personaggi, ed il suo realismo lo porta a ritrarre con abbondanza di particolari le fogge cavalleresche del Trecento. Cfr. Toesca 1912, 749. Ai ff. 160v e 161r si trova infine un’unica miniatura che copre interamente le due pagine, nella quale sono raffigurati più soggetti, in una composizione che riassume episodi diversi dello scontro sotto le mura d Pamplona durante il quale Isoré cade prigioniero. Questa grande illustrazione è di una quarta mano, molto simile alla seconda, ma un po’ meno raffinata.
Gli storici dell’arte si sono soffermati più volte sulle illustrazioni del codice marciano fr. XXI. Ma non si è ancora pervenuti ad un chiarimento esaustivo sulla datazione e sulla localizzazione delle miniature attribuite di volta in volta alla scuola veneziana ed alla scuola bolognese. Il Toesca, nel suo studio del 1912a, dopo aver riconosciuto nel codice la presenza di tre mani diverse (la prima che decora dalla c. 1 alla c. 29v, e che si ritrova, a suo giudizio, anche ai ff. 160v-161; la seconda, dalla c. 39v alla c. 84; ed una terza, dal f. 84v alla fine), ne ascriveva le illustrazioni all’ambiente veneziano. Secondo il Muzzioli 1954, invece, le tre mani intervenute nel ms., pur essendo tutte veneziane, sono influenzate dalla miniatura bolognese. Per Salmi 1955, al contrario, le decorazioni di artisti veneziani sembrerebbero maggiormente influenzate dall’arte di Treviso. Della stessa opinione è Pallucchini 1964.
Per quanto concerne la datazione delle miniature, D’Arcais 1984 ha proposto per il primo, il secondo ed il quarto illustratore, una datazione al terzo, o al quarto, decennio del XIV secolo, sulla scorta della tipologia delle corazze e della semplicità delle architetture raffigurate. Il terzo miniatore sembra aver operato invece più tardi: basandosi infatti sulla forma dei vestiti dipinti, che risalgono ad una moda di epoca completamente diversa, la studiosa fa risalire il suo lavoro almeno al 1350-60 circa.
Lejeune-Stiennon, descrivendo in modo molto dettagliato il ms., e riconoscendo una L nell’iniziale del f. 1, hanno pensato di poter datare il codice all’epoca di Luigi Gonzaga, primo Signore di Mantova, cioè fra il 1328 e il 1360. Per tutta la questione si rimanda a D’Arcais 1984, 594-596.
Novello (2009), infine, ritiene che il corredo di illustrazioni del codice marciano sia collocabile essenzialmente a Padova. Nell’esecuzione vengono riconosciute tre distinte fasi: le prime due cronologicamente vicine, riferibili al secondo quarto del Trecento, mentre la terza decisamente posteriore, da collocarsi negli anni novanta del secolo.
Il codice presenta tre iniziali miniate: a f. 1r E(n) in campo dorato, istoriata con Carlomagno e Rolando, decorata da un’antenna vegetale; più sotto S(egnors) di colore grigio su sfondo blu. A f. 161r, iniziale in campo dorato, istoriata con arciere sull’albero che minaccia Malgeris.
Ogni lassa ha un’iniziale filigranata. Le iniziali di verso sono maiuscole e decorate da una barra gialla.
Altre informazioni: Non sembra esistere una filiazione diretta fra il ms. di Venezia e i lacerti di Châtillon e il frammento di Reggio Emilia. Per quanto riguarda i bifolii di Châtillon, la prova starebbe, secondo Aebischer (1928, 260), nel fatto che il testo di Venezia fornisce tre versi (14344, 14720, 14733) che non si trovano in b [= il secondo foglio del frammento di Châtillon], mentre nei frammenti valdostani vi è un verso sconosciuto al ms. marciano, collocabile fra i vv. 14724 e 14725 dell’ed. Thomas 1913. Per il frammento di Reggio Emilia, una filiazione diretta con il codice marciano fr. XXI è esclusa da Specht (1977-1978, 418), «poiché i versi 12444 e 12449 di XXI non hanno i loro corrispondenti nel frammento [R], che, d’altra parte, ha due versi – 143 e 162 – sconosciuti al ms. di Venezia».
Il ms. marciano dell’Entrée d’Espagne fu per un certo tempo legato ad un altro volume, come attesta il richiamo Avant qa Rols soit (f. 304r), contenente la prima parte della Continuazione dell’Entrée d’Espagne di Niccolò da Verona.
Segnature antiche: Arm. C – Th. III e Arm. LV – Th. 2, successivamente cancellate e sostituite dalla collocazione CIV 5 e infine AB 4 (1).
Possessori: Trattandosi di un ms. riccamente illustrato, si è pensato ad un committente di alto rango, forse un personaggio della famiglia padovana dei Carrara (cfr. De Mandach, 1989, 191).
Secondo Bisson (2008, 102, nota 6) l’ipotesi di Lejeune-Stiennon (1966 I, 259) di un legame con Luigi I Gonzaga è inconsistente, poiché basata su una descrizione, tratta da De Mandach (1961, 319), riguardante il ms. B 225 della Biblioteca di Châteauroux, e non il marciano Fr. 21.
Il codice appartenne in seguito alla famiglia Gonzaga ed è segnalato nell’inventario del 1407: 53. Liber Introitus Yspanie. Incipit: En onor et embien et in gran remembrance. Et finit: chasa vie disponue. Continet cart. 308 (Braghirolli, p. 513). Esso presenta un’ampia lacuna (5000 vv. circa) dovuta alla caduta di alcuni quaderni verificatasi già prima dell’inventario gonzaghesco; i ff. 303 e 304r contengono l’inizio (131 vv.) della Prise de Pampelune.
Al f. 262r, in basso, una mano settecentesca ha aggiunto: Jo Andrea Straieseri e Jo Vicenzo Crisi.
Prima del 1722, il nobile veneziano Giovambattista Recanati acquistò il codice, che alla sua morte (1734) passò alla Biblioteca Marciana. In questo periodo vennero aggiunte le indicazioni diciaotto e Romanzo di Carlomagno (f. 1r). Cfr. Bisson 2008, 102.
Entrée d’Espagne miniatures (by Leslie Zarker Morgan, orig. 07-09-21 ; edited 13-02-2022 ; le brevi descrizioni tra parentesi sono tratte da Bisson, 2008, pp. 99-101; ; dove la descrizione è erronea, è cancellata con il trattino orizzontale)
f. 1r First initial: Charlemagne on his throne, frontal & bearded; also, face on the right, but not very clear who since missing paint around; capital s decorated, but not figural. Lejeune and Stiennon: L with Carlomagno = Luigi I Gonzaga (p. 259).
- 1r, bottom of page (san Giacomo appare in sogno a Carlomagno) Saint James (with a halo) in flat hat, at Charlemagne’s bedside (faces are damaged)
- 1v, bottom of page (consiglio nella corte di Carlomagno- sette miniature) Charlemagne (crowned and bearded) on the left left facing council of 6 men; second in pink w/out hat (curly hair); all others wearing a chaperon
- 2v, bottom, same, but Charlemagne less downcast
- 3r, bottom, same, but pink man standing to speak (Roland speaking on that page, responding to Galés de Vermandois)
- 3v, bottom, same, but next man, in red with blue apron, standing and speaking (Riçars le Normant on this page)
- 4r, bottom, same, but next man, in yellow, standing and speaking (Ganellon speaking above, v. 215)
- 4v, bottom, same, but next man, in green, standing and speaking (Salamon, v. 237)
- 5r, bottom, same, but next man, in orange, standing and speaking (Nayme de Bavier, v. 286)
- 6v, center (esercito dei Franchi) Frankish army (laisse 15, getting ready): great helms, typical shape (flat-topped cone with eye-slits)
- 7r, center (consiglio nella corte di Marsilio) pagan court: ruler to left, with crown and bearded; three men to right all bearded; first one standing (Jonas de Crodes, 387). Men in turbans, grey-ish dark faces
- 7v, center (Marsilio legge il presagio in un vaso d’argento) pagan court: king as before to left; tree and silver tub with water in center, with something (“dormoncel petit” of wax in it); men to the right, standing (two curved swords visible, but one in front of other so number unclear-nb dark faces); to see where Charlemagne will go (3X = Spain).
- 8r a [two illuminations] (messaggio di Marsilio per Carlomagno) upper: messenger sent from pagan King (left) with two men;
- 8r b lower (l’emissario è ricevuto da Carlomagno), Charlemagne and Roland (quartered shield, red & white; shorter skirt here) receive messenger; Roland in the middle of the illumination
- 9v, bottom of page (Carlomagno parla ai messaggeri) at Charlemagne’s court: Charlemagne and 2 pagan messengers, in different colored robes
- 10v, below two lines from top (i messaggeri fanno rapporto a Marsilio): messengers back at pagan court, again in bright clothes
- 11r, bottom of page (Ferragu porge omaggio a Marsilio): Ferragu kneeling before Marsile; bottom of page, Ferragu bigger than the pagan king. He’s in blue, with a blue standard and a naked angel (?) on it; his gray baldric has black griffons on it
- 12r, middle of page (Carlomagno e Gano): Charlemagne gives baton symbolizing rule of France during his absence to Anseis de Pontiu; three men to right in different color outfits to witness; as of 3v, Roland in red, at front of group
- 12v, bottom of page (Carlomagno alla messa): mass before departure. Priest to left facing left where altar is, figure in white with green edgings behind him, holding something (a large candle?); Charlemagne with three men behind him at right of frame. No specifications re who sang mass (v. 680)
- 13v, center of page (partenza dell’esercito di Carlomagno): men outside of city (leaving the city to march into Spain) with round helms, Roland in front (quartered horse blanket); blue pennon with golden dragon on it [compare with CC 162v a]
- 14r, center of page (incontro tra gli eserciti di Carlomagno e Rolando): Roland on the left in front meets another group (chevroned horse blankets [ =Ogier? See f. 22r] & blue pennon with gold griffon), facing them (so looking to left)
- 15r, under two lines at top (l’esercito giunge al castello): Army (mixed Roland’s men & chevrons’ men) arrives at a castle, Nájera; the landscape looks like a desert. There is a person in the tower blowing a horn
- 17r, middle of page (Ferragu esce da Najera): Ferragu comes out of the city to the Christians (in blue, grey baldric with black figures on it as above, holding 3-stringed mace)
- 17v, above two lines at the bottom (l’esercito di Ferragu); Ferragu with army (blue blanket, pennon with naked lady held by a man in pink with a tower on his shield and caparison)
- 18r, above three lines at the bottom (ambasciata saracena a Carlomagno): Charlemagne with armed council in tent receives 3 turbaned messengers with three horses behind them (on left); Roland to the far right (Charlemagne’s left) with his quartered shield
- 19r, under three lines of text (Carlomagno si rivolge ai messaggeri saraceni): Charlemagne in center, with his men (to the right) and turbaned messengers to the left. Far right: man in red, armed (on the next page, Olivier speaks, so this may be him)
- 20v, middle of page (i messaggeri lasciano il campo dei Franchi): Pagan messengers leave Charlemagne (who is on the left, with four men). The pagans are on the right, leaving
- 21r a, top-middle of page (l’esercito di Ferragu): Army (Ferragu’s blue to left, in front facing right; horse in pink with castles on drape and on the shield of knight facing Ferragu, facing left of page)
- 21r b. bottom of page (consiglio nella tenda di Carlomagno): Charlemagne’s tent (Charlemagne frontal in center with his right arm extended to men on his right/our left), Roland with his shield to the right (damaged, so hard to distinguish much)
- 22r a, top under one line (Ogier parte per il duello): Charlemagne & men, Roland in front, facing Charlemagne; one off to fight in chevroned blanket
- 22r b, bottom of page (Ogier e Ferragu): Ogier unhorsed (Ferragu’s blue with stripe of griffons; Ogier in chevroned pattern)
- 22v, center of page (duello fra Ferragu e Ottone): Ferragu on left (as through these illuminations): with man off horse and horse facing him (red and gold colors; looks like ring with a red stone facing up as insignia
- 23r, bottom of page (duello fra Ferragu e Berengario): Ferragu on left, head on; knight bent over on horse to right, from side (insignia: dog head on green caparisons): defeated in red and yellow, with triple horse-shoes as insignia
- 23v, bottom of page (duello fra Ferragu e Olites): Ferragu on left with his mace with three balls, bent over, facing another knight in blue whose insignia is prancing creatures with golden horns (Anseïs, v. 1216 above)
- 24r, middle of page (Ferragu contro quattro cavalieri): some lines white for black of pen (the mace, the spears): Ferragu versus Engelier, Sanson, two of Naimes’s sons (v. 1241); figure nearest the reader in checkered blue-and-white caparison and shield
- 24v, top under 5 lines of text (Ferragu sconfigge Turpino): again some white lines. Ferrau, with his spear, unhorses Turpin in red, with crozier as his insignia
- 25v a, top, under 4 lines (duello fra Ferragu and Gera(r)z): Ferragu vs. knight in gold and blue with grey griffon rampant to right, Girard: knight on foot beside his horse
- 25v b, at bottom (Giraz si arrende): Girard surrenders, offering his sword, handle toward Ferragu
(STYLE CHANGES: figures rounder, faces fatter; king with belly, and dark hair; helmets and armor different too)
- 26r a, top (rapporto a Carlomagno): king to the right, under tree; two groups of men speaking to him with in the center with Roland first (in red and gray quartered) and three other men; four or five at the left frame of the miniature, all armed except Charlemagne
- 26r b, bottom (assemblea): king to right, under a rounded tree on a seat; to left, five men in round-top helmets with faces visible
- 27r, center (Oliviero sconfitto da Ferragu): Ferragu on left (face uncovered unlike before) with mace, knight in brown with double lily on horse saddle and left-facing griffon on shield on ground (Oliver, v. 1371)
- 28r, top (duello fra Ferragu ed Estout): Ferrau vs. Estout (in red, halved shield, top red, bottom grey; horse similarly caparisoned). Bridles and spurs white here too. Ferragu with different type of helm, not rounded at top, though face enclosed (bucket helm); Estout still with rounded helm
- 28v, bottom above 2 lines of text (Rolando rimprovera Estout): Estout to left, frontal, closed face helmet, pointing to left; Roland (quartered shield, face revealed) on right.
- 29v, top under one line of text (Estout presenta la spada a Ferragu vincitore): Ferragu to the left, Estout (in grey and red, as before) to right with face revealed, offering sword pommel to Ferragu
Change in illuminators: no frames; clacissicizing (roman dress of speaker)- but also differences among these miniatures
Novello 2016, p. 293: “disegno acquerellato, in tinte assai delicate e con effetti quasi di monocromo”
- 29v, bottom (Ferragu consegna il prigioniero ai figli di Baraban): Ferragu to left, with closed flat helm; in center, figure of Estout standing; 6 knights on horseback, with three shields having the same insignia, the moor in profile; they wear rounded helms plus mailed coif. Ferragu is giving Estout as prisoner to two of Baraban’s sons
- 30r, middle (Estout affidato ai soldati): Ferragu to left with helm off (upside down on his back!) revealing face with coif and helmet: speaking to Estout now on horseback and in red in the center, and 7 horsed men with long dresses and similarly helmeted to the right.
- 31r, bottom (Estout condotto in città): armed men on horseback to left, Estout unhelmeted and unarmed in center (all facing right) about to enter in city, rocks outside; two people in chaperons watch from the tower; interesting roof with three domes but also three-lobed clover in (false) decorative gables. Presumably this represents Eastern architecture. The merlons are flat, Guelf style
- 31v, three lines from bottom (Carlomagno parla con Rolando): left, figure in red on horseback facing right; king, center, facing left, with 7 men behind him also on horseback. Roland and Charlemagne discussing Roland’s going to fight now that the 12 peers are all taken. There is no scenery, just a little brown ground underneath
- 32v, bottom (primo scontro tra Rolando e Ferragu), end of signature (catchword below): no backdrop at all. The left figure on horseback in red (Roland), right in blue (Ferragu) with three-balled mace, face each other; both are in flat-top helms
- 33v, below three lines at top (Rolando e Ferragu si fronteggiano): Ferragu on left, twisted left, with his blue shield and eagles, mace; Roland on right in red, twisted right, with his quartered shield (different quality of paint, almost as if applied at a different time). Again, there is just a little ground beneath the horses’ feet, no other backdrop
- 34r, bottom above two lines of text (Ferragu carica sul cavallo Rolando svenuto e lo porta in città): Ferragu on horseback with Roland unconscious over the saddle in front of him, riding toward the town (left to right); three figures on top of tower watching, all in capuchons. The merlons are now slightly ghibelline, with v’s in the middle, and the top of the tower is like a balcony
- 35r, bottom (riprende il duello fra Ferragu e Rolando): Ferragu, with helm open on horse to left; Roland, with quartered shield and sword, helm shut, facing him in front of the city, with same three watching, and a similar tower, though Ferragu looks somewhat different here
- 36r, middle of page (Ferragu e Rolando discutono): pause in the battle; both Ferragu and Roland have their helms open. They are in the same place, talking, Ferragu mounted and Roland on foot. Ferragu again has his mace, but now over his shoulder
- 36v, middle of page (Rolando espone le sue ragioni): same place, Roland with right hand out, same three watchers. The city tower is somewhat simpler, with only one opening
- 37v, middle of page (conclusione dello scontro): outside of city still, Roland to left, Ferragu to right, both on foot, facing opposite directions, as if facing off, but in fact going back to dinner. Three watchers on tower, only two with the chaperon, one bare-headed.
- 38r, under one line at the top of the page (Rolando torna all’accampamento): all on foot. Roland on the left, embraced by Charlemagne, all standing; figure in long blue robe and uncovered head also, and eleven figures with rounded hats, three with blue shields painted with golden dragons, outside the royal red tent
- 38v, bottom of page (banchetto nella tenda di Carlomagno): dinner at the Christian camp; crowned Charlemagne at left end, on throne up high; four at table, the third from left (second from right) in red is Roland, and the last one also with a crown, but at same level as others: this King Salamon, who talks with Roland, son of Milon (vv. 1972-73)
- 40r, top of page below one line (Ferragu parla con i paladini prigionieri): pagan camp scenes parallel to the last two at the Christian camp. On left, two warriers in coifs with shields (front one black with animal on it), Ferragu; to right, facing him, four prisoners in conversation with him, wearing civvies, capuchons and long robes
- 40v, middle of page (cena nella tenda di Salamone): six at table with a little person in front of it. Ferragu at head of table (left), next to Oliver (v. 2077), and other peers (vv. 2070-2077). Most wear a capuchon, but center one a basic coif
- 41r, bottom of page (vestizione di Rolando): back with the Christians, a man is on his knees in front of Roland, accompanied by a knight holding Roland’s shield (here, round!) and three unarmored men behind him (all on right, in capuchons and long dresses, with tent behind). Perhaps this is Teris weeping for Roland? (vv. 2100-2101)
- 42r, bottom above one line (ritorno di Ferragu sul campo di battaglia): Ferragu leads three men behind him toward the left outside of the city; now four watching on the tower
- 42v, bottom of page (Ferragu discute con i suoi compagni): Ferragu again with the three men outside of the city, now further to the left, lots of hand gestures; three watchers [faces and figures different: longer faces, more colored, but not as drastic a difference as ff. 26-29 from previous]
- 43v, middle of the page (ripresa del duello tra Ferragu e Rolando): Roland in red to left with spear on Ferragu’s shield (blue with two figures); Ferragu facing Roland, with mace pointing at him. No city in sight, only a tiny strip of ground under the combat
- 44r, middle of page (Ferragu estrae la mazza): similar postures left and right; Roland in red with shield (of which reader sees the back) in his left hand and sword in his right, Ferragu to right in blue and with his shield raising his mace; no environment
- 44v, under four lines at top (Rolando scende dal cavallo): Roland on foot to left, Ferragu still mounted; no city in sight. Same colors
- 45v, center of page (duello con le spade): Roland on foot leaning backwards while Ferragu hits his shield (of which we see the front, quartered) with a sword; city to right with tower, four watchers (note throughout, ghibelline type battlements, with v-shaped notches); here tower also with three windows and round
- 47v, bottom of page (Ferragu e Rolando discutono delle loro fedi): both with visors raised and in their usual colors; Roland’s horse watches to the left, Roland has his sword down, right arm raised; Ferragu with mace raised on horseback; city to right with three watchers in tower, two with chaperon and one in coif
- 48v, middle of page (ripresa del duello): fight resumes with both faces covered, Roland on foot and with his shield again, Ferragu on his horse, both in their usual colors and with their usual and distinguishable shields. The tower has three watchers, all in chaperon
- 49v, middle of page (Ferragu colpisce Rolando): Ferragu whacking Roland’s shield- Roland still on foot, Ferragu still on horseback, tower with three watchers, one in coif
- 50r, middle of page (Rolando colpisce Ferragu): Roland on foot hitting mounted Ferragu’s shield, Ferragu leaning back (but still on horse); tower with three watchers, two in coif, one in capuchon
- 51r, bottom of page (prosecuzione del duello): Ferragu to the left, following Roland on right (facing right but turning back); tower with 3 watchers, one coif, two capuchon
- 52r, middle of page (Ferragu perde il cavallo): Ferragu on horse, sword over head, horse in prance position (reddish cloud around horse’s head, its mouth open (perhaps that is the stone that Roland threw, vv. 2672-5); Roland to right, with Ferragu’s shield on his left, reaching out with right arm toward Ferragu from higher ground; again, tower & 3 watchers
- 53r, bottom about 3 lines of text (duello con la spada a scudi invertiti): both on foot; Ferragu with Roland’s shield and Roland with Ferragu’s; Roland’s sword out toward Ferragu, tower with 3 watchers all in capuchon
- 53v, bottom of page (Ferragu lancia una pietra): Roland (in red) falling on knees when Ferragu throws rock (shown hitting his shield, of which we see only the back); Ferragu with his right arm extended after throw, left holding his shield visible to reader; tower with 3 watchers, all in capuchon
- 54v, bottom of page (tre poeti in uno scriptorium): three men reading at desks: to the left, following the usual order for reading a page, a bearded figure faces right, wearing an ecclesiastical miter and robes. He sits at on a bench at a desk with a book open in front of him on a lectern, facing two other figures. One of these faces the reader, wearing a blue chaperon and long red robe, and a second, in a coif and long red robe with a blue cloak, faces left toward the other two. Each of the two unbearded figures is also seated with a book. The figure to the far right seems to be following with his hands— perhaps correcting—while the central figure is holding up his book toward the MS reader
- 55r, bottom of page (discussione fra Rolando e Ferragu): Roland to left, Ferragu to right of pile of rocks, tower with 3 watchers to right as usual; Roland and Ferragu with arms extended indicating speech, though their helms are closed
- 56r a, middle of page (ritorno ai rispettivi accampamenti): Roland and horse on left, facing left (leaving); Ferragu middle to right facing right, going toward tower; there are 4 watchers. Here the merlons of the tower are almost flat, like Guelf style
- 56r b bottom of page (Carlomagno accoglie Rolando): to the left, a horse and an unarmed figure; in the center, Roland embraced by (brown-haired) Charlemagne in crown; four figures with hats, including one in red with white coif, to the right
- 58r, center (celebrazione religiosa): mass- altar to the left, priest (“un abés de Flandre” v. 2979) on his knees, candle carrier on knees behind him, Roland in coif, crowned king, and two others also coiffed in attitude of praying
- 59v, bottom of page (Rolando sotto le mura di Najera): from left to right: tree and Roland, his right hand out and sword in its sheath to his left, facing right toward the city with the usual 3 watchers in the tower
- 60v, center of page (Rolando sostiene l’impossibilità di risolvere il duello): Roland to the left (bigger than others) talking to a group of 5, with odd round hats; the city is to the right, with three watchers again in the top of the tower
- 61r, lower middle of page above 5 lines of text (ripresa del duello): from the left: tree, on foot, both Roland with sword, then facing him, Ferragu with a spear in his right arm pointed down, wearing his shield; 3 watchers in the tower above the city
- 61v, top, below three lines of text (Rolando spezza la lancia scagliata da Ferragu): from the left: atree with a broken spear stuck in it; both fighters still on foot, Roland holding his triangular shield facing the reader in his left hand, with sword in front of it; Ferragu with his right arm extended; to the far right, the usual tower with 3 observers
- 62r, top of page under 1 line of text (duello): on left, Roland facing right, about to strike, his sword behind his head and holding his shield over his left arm (straps visible with arm through them); facing him, Ferragu with sword touching Roland’s shield; tower and three watchers
- 63r, center of page (duello): Roland hitting Ferragu’s knee with his sword, while Ferragu hits Roland’s shield with his sword; tower and 3 watchers at the right of the miniature
- 68r, center of page (Rolando offre un masso a Ferragu per riposarsi): from left to right: Ferragu lying under a tree, with his head toward the city, on a rock, his left arm under head; Roland holding the rock; tree, and finally the tower with 3 watchers
- 68v, bottom of page (Ferragu e Rolando si fronteggiano con le visiere sollevate): Roland to left with sword drawn, a much larger Ferragu to his right (they face each other), both holding shields. Roland has his sword at the ready, Ferragu has his right hand extended, sword in its sheath at his left; the tower has 3 watchers
- 69v, bottom of page above two lines of text (disputa sulle rispettive fedi): from the left: a tree (that seems to be growing out of the capital “L” below), Roland and Ferragu facing each other with face guards up, gesticulating; Roland’s sword is sheathed, Ferragu’s is not visible. The tower has three watchers
- 70v, bottom of page (proseguimento della disputa): from the left, a tree, Roland, with his helm closed but sword still sheathed, facing Ferragu, who is again much bigger, with his helm up, both gesticulating; in the tower are 3 watching
- 72r, top of page under two lines of text (Ferragu e Rolando indossano gli elmi): from the left, a tree (again, it seems to grow out of the capital under it, here a “d”), Roland facing Ferragu (bigger) facing each other helms closed and swords sheathed, gesticulating; tower with 3 watchers
- 73r, middle of page (prosegue la disputa religiosa): from the left, a tree, Roland with his helm up facing Ferragu (helm down), tower with 3 watchers. Both have their swords still sheathed
- 74v, middle of page, under 5 lines of text (prosegue la disputa religiosa); from the left: again, tree, Roland and Ferragu taller and bigger than Roland, gesticulating facing each other, helms closed, no weapons; tower with 3 watchers
- 76r, bottom of page (prosegue la disputa religiosa): again, same as 74v- tree, Roland, Ferragu, 3 watchers in the tower
- 77r, top, under two lines of text (prosegue la disputa religiosa): same again
- 77v, bottom of page (ripresa del duello): from the left- tree, Roland, Ferragu, 3 watchers (first looking alarmed). Their swords touching each other, their shields at their sides
- 78r, bottom of page (duello): Roland is hitting Ferragu’s shield as he is turning the other direction, right, as if to go away. Ferragu is hitting Roland’s left shoulder; the 3 watchers are quite intent
- 79r, bottom of page above four lines of text (Rolando prega dopo aver ucciso Ferragu): Ferragu flat on ground, with blood coming out of his stomach ( “nombril”). Roland is beside him to the back of the illustration, with his bloody sword stuck in the ground. He appears to be praying (there is no city or witness)
- 80r, mid-bottom of page (Carlomagno presso il corpo di Ferragu): Ferragu is still on ground in the foreground as before; now there are five figures behind him in a semi-circle, in order: one in a domed hat, the king with a crown, figure in red with capuchon, and an armed man, to the far right one with a shield in his right hand (v. 4184 quens de Nevers, count of Nevers; MS actually reads “Novers”—Gui de Nevers?)
- 82r, bottom of page (accordata la salvezza agli abitanti di Najera): three turbaned figures meeting two in chaperon to the center left; on the foreground right, a red-robed figure sits in front of a tent where four armed men stand behind him, two on each side (round cone type hats, one over chin-protecting mail- one also also with round shield-, others not). Oliver pointing out Roland to the messengers (vv. 4314-4316)
- 82v, bottom of page (conversione al cristianesimo): from the left: a tree; in the center, three turbaned figures kneel facing right (they are presenting the appeal from Najera, vv. 4308-15), where Roland, bareheaded and sitting on a stool is holding two red flags, the front one with the keys of St. Peter (vv. 4345: “l’ensaigne san Donis / E le quarter d’or et de color bis”), the one partially blocked behind it his own quartered, red and white. These are an odd shape, a rectangle with the long end vertical, and an extension at the top. Three men with round shields and round hats, with long skirts, stand behind him
Third miniaturist; change in style (De Mandach, Bisson, “Rossi” f. 161v in the edge of miniature)
- 83r, most of page, from bottom, only 6 lines at top on folio (i vessilli di Rolando e della Chiesa sulle mura di Najera): a city, with pennons. On the left, Roland’s pennon (quartered red and white) flies over one tower; on the right, the red banner with the Keys of St. Peter; again, city has Ghibelline battlements.
- 84v, middle of page (consegna delle chiavi della città): two scenes in one- on the right, figure being buried, on the left Charlemagne on a wooden throne (3/4 view) receiving keys to the city from two turbaned figures; group of men to Charlemagne’s right (our left), including helmeted figures. City in background, with merlons of tower to right of ghibelline style. Others flat-topped. Bell-tower to far right behind burial
- 85r, top-center of page, below four lines of text (onori tributati a Rolando): City background, including drawbridge to the far right, with bridge down. Roland taking rod symbolic of rule from Charlemagne seated on throne (side-view) with various figures to his right side, including bearded one in red with odd hat (above)
- 85v, bottom of page above two line (battesimo dei saraceni): Baptism; many figures- three in loincloths, two with back to viewer, one with side, left one with in basin, water going down back; middle one taking communion (wafer in mouth; large open bird-bath like device beside him). Two figures with capes (one red, one purple, with gold edging) handling the water dropping; the baptised one to the right (side-view) receiving a towel/cloth from a hooded figure
- 86r, bottom of page (banchetto): feast, with three tables. To the left, a service table perpendicular to the main table, with young page standing by it; to far right, tower all the way up into margin with ghibelline battlements; at central table, 3 figures- younger, with older bearded and hat with white fur (Naimes, as we later find out), and then Roland (in red quartered outfit); at head of third table, again perpendicular to the main one, turned toward men (left) is the king, with a white beard served by a younger figure. This illustrates Charlemagne saying it’s time to move on (4501-02)
- 87v, middle of page (l’esercito franco si prepara al suono dell’Olifante): inside of walls: many armed men (with pointed helms for the most part; one in a helm with a rounded brim and metal chest plate) and some unarmed figures looking up at the tower on the right, where Roland (in quartered outfit) sounds his olifant
- 88r, bottom of page (partenza dell’esercito): army marching out over bridge, with Roland in front and a quartered red and white pennon in front on right held by the man in the round helm and breastplate; the horses are not caparisoned here. Faces are visible, not covered
- 88v, middle of page (riunione dell’esercito): armed men, some facing right, others left; Roland’s pennon on the right, blowing right; hill in background on right, with path up. Left, more pointed mountain
- 89v, middle of page (l’esercito in cammino): similar shape to previous one (sort of “boat”)- with no frame, taking up the whole width of page. Turpin leads from left to right: he’s in red with a red pennant bearing a miter as insignia. He and Ençeler are heading with a 100 men in a group as advance guard to Pamplune (vv. 4660 ff; vv. 4671-4675). One man toward the back in a helmet with a rounded brim
- 90r, center of page (i Franchi attraversano le campagne saccheggiate): army advancing left to right with swords [text: lances, v. 4692] out; left between two groups of armed men, a captured figure (in ropes) by a pair of oxen with ribs showing. Five figures on right in front of a mountain/hill, far right, hower in the field with backdrop of hill, one in robles and two without head covering; to far right, foreground, partially bald man in trousers wearing knee-length breeches and carrying a stick. Archbishop and men chasing cowherds (v. 4691, “vachers”) toward Pamplune
- 90v, center of page (a Pamplona Malgeris viene a sapere dell’arrivo dei Franchi): gate into city on left; group of turbaned men, with one his knee. The crowned and bearded king, dressed in red, seated frontally, gesturing with his hands, is sitting on a large “throne” (no back); behind the king, a tall figure reaches out to another man in civvies, with helmeted men in the background to the right in front of the wall (nb: the merlons to left are Ghibelline or swallow-tail vs. the earlier plain, Guelf merlons, as here, in fact, to the right). The country people seeking sanctuary bring word of the Christian arrival
- 91r, center of page (Malgeris si fa portare le sue armi): king Malgeris is in the middle of a crowd in the city; there is a tower to right with a grisaille-type design, with a tower above, swallow-tail merlons, with bell. Someone is putting on his spurs and another holding armor (these figures are bare-headed), and there are several men in round-brimmed helmets.
- 91v, bottom of page (preparazione dell’esercito pagano): inside town still, with a portal to the left, tower to the right; a figure with a pennon is facing the right, leading out. The pennon is white with a black head on triangular piece of cloth, characterized by de Mandach as a “Moor”. In the right-center, the armed king distinguished by a crown over his helmet. Two helmets with round brims here too; one with wide brim (left of center) and one with narrower (gonfalonier)
- 92r, above two lines at the bottom (l’esercito pagano), similar scene: towers on each side, king wearing his crown now on horseback, the men all together behind the banner, a few in rounded-brim helmets
- 92v, center of the page (discesa del ponte levatoio): armed men on horseback to the left, near hills; to the center and right, facing left, the city; inside the city are armed men, with the king up on the tower (again, crown over his helmet); the drawbridge is being lowered in between (toward the left)
- 93r a, middle of the page (uscita dell’esercito): change of direction: city on the left. This seems to illustrate two scenes. First, it concentrates on pagans coming out of the city, king with his crown, the white pennon with black head near the gate exit (to the left of center). Then, in a second scene divided from the earlier one by a tree, the pagan king and a couple of choice men engages with swords out toward Christians on the right. These have a red pennon inscribed with white cross (presumably representing Turpin) and a separate small red pennon, to the right (damage to the illumination at the right edge means it is hard to see much of fighters to right)
- 93r b, bottom of the page (battaglia): pagan king with lance out against someone on white horse to the right wearing a round-brimmed helmet, face exposed; the same red banner with white cross and plain red pennon appear on the right. Some Christians have closed helms, others not. Helmets of both types on pagan side, together with the white gonfalon with moor insignia
- 95r, above three lines of text at the bottom of the page (scene di battaglia): again, pagans to the left, Christians to the right, same banners as before, though these are now nearer the front lines; the Christian cross flag is being held by a young-looking figure with a round-brimmed hat, blood dripping down face. Figure fighting in foreground of pagan side has the white banner with moor on it
- 95v, above four lines of text at the bottom of the page (scene di battaglia): pagans stand just outside the gate of the city on the left, with flag with more image intact; to the right, the mêlée, with the Christian flag not visible. Malgeris has granted to his son Ysoré to sortie with four thousand Saracens (vv. 4974-77), and these are here coming out
- 96r, bottom of the page (scene di battaglia): pagans under Ysoré have advanced further across the page toward the Christians behind the earlier troops; the red flag with a cross has been damaged on the right edge, so hardly distinguishable
- 97v, below three lines of text (scene di battaglia): more battle, pagans vs. Christians; Christian flag held by a soldier seen frontally to the far right, pagan flag (white with moor) to the left behind men so gonfalonier cannot be seen. King with crown to center front, sword drawn (confronting Estout, v. 5080). Dead men and horses to the right front
- 101r, above three lines of text at the bottom (l’esercito franco): Roland with his (red-and-white quartered) standard to the left; kneeling on the ground facing right; a horse facing him, another man on foot on the other side of the horse. Other men coming from the right, a hilly area, with a yellow flag decorated with red, and archers, also mounted, are in front (bows visible behind the leader). These are the pagans, coming out from three gates (v. 5152-3); one of the archers kills Roland’s horse from under him (v. 5180). Ganelon offers Roland his horse (vv. 5291 ff). A city is at the top of the mountain behind on the right.
- 102r, under four lines of text at top of page (scene di battaglia): two armies charging each other- left with visors up in front ranks, right with visors down, under pagan flag (white with moor); figure down at front of pagans with lance in him from left (Ysoré, hit by Girard de Viane)
- 102v, middle of page (scene di battaglia): again, two opposing sets of troops; on the left, with triangular white banner with red (on outer edge of page, so not very distinguishable); on the right, triangular blue and red banners with light colored cross in middle. Lone man in the middle facing left is Ysoré, among the French (his men are gone). Anseis invites him to surrender (v. 5392)
- 103v, top of page (scene di battaglia): the mêlée; white pennon with moor on the right, but point is toward left; Roland’s red and white is just behind it, pointed the same direction. Ysoré is still front and center, standing by his horse and over two other bodies, fighting (he wants to surrender, but cannot be heard for the noise). A knight has his shield in Ysoré’s face with his sword raised. Roland will be calling for him to be allowed to surrender (vv. 5444-45), but does not yet appear
- 104r, middle of page (scene di battaglia): left, woods and fields; troops from there fighting Ysoré still, by a dead horse; another few men fighting below a hill with a fortress on top at right
- 104v, above two lines of text at the bottom of the page (scene di battaglia): Ysoré, on his knees facing left, surrendering with his sword pommel to Roland (in quartered red and white, facing right) on horseback; other troops look on toward the left from the right side of the page, with the man in front touching Ysoré’s back with his weapon (unclear if sword or lance). Hill and two flags without color sketched in behind them, above to the right
- 105r, middle of the page (scene di battaglia): troops on horseback facing right marching into the hill; Roland (in quartered red and white outfit, as usual) at the far left of the scene, behind the now-mounted Ysoré, his prisoner. Some footsoldiers face (looking left) Roland; it is difficult to distinguish much about them
- 105v, middle of the page (Isoré fatto prigionerio): The white-bearded emperor to the far right, on his throne under a tent; at his right side, a man dressed in pink with a high hat striped white and brown (fur-lined hat: Naimes), and a man in green with a blue chaperon (these two not in battle gear, they wear long outfits); in front of him, a curly-headed blond youth in red (Ysoré). Soldiers trail behind in the background toward the left (one in red on his knee), all the way to the left of the page, in front of a stone; one is on horseback
- 106r a, below five lines at the top of the page (Carlomagno parla con la fantesca): court scene again, similar; there is a rock on either side, at left, man on horseback and soldiers face the king; man in blue robes on his knee (= bishop?) and boy in red (Ysoré); figure in pink wearing the high white and brown hat (Naimes) on King’s immediate right; the white-haired king and a few soldiers (with the tent top visible behind); Charlemagne speaks to the Bishop of Beauvais and Naimes according to the text (vv. 5527 & 5554)
- 106r b, above two lines at the bottom of folio (l’esercito guidato da Carlomagno): pagans flee into the city, with the king in front of them and red pennon almost inside (from left to right). Malgeris is turning around to listen to a man bending forward toward him, both on horseback: he is telling the king that his son is taken (vv. 5562-3). Christians pursue close behind
107v, 2 illuminations- here they have a red frame around them, though it is not regular in shape
- 107v a-middle of page (attacco alla città): a few soldiers appear to the left; a walled city (= Pampelune) is in line with the beginning of the text, and there is a channel below the walls. Dead figures lie on the ground and in the ditch; figures are on the walls. To the right of the city, about the center of the panel, a few men fight. To the right, Roland leads troops while blowing his olifant and carrying his quartered pennon off to the right
- 107v b-bottom of page (la tenda di Carlomagno): Charlemagne is in the center, white-bearded, crowned and hunched, on his bench-like throne; Roland (in quartered outfit) kneels in the foreground to the left with his horn over his shoulder; to the right, two unarmed figures: one in red with white-striped hat (Naimes) and a figure in purple in a cape with a white inner cap. Behind the tent are armed troops. See de Mandach in Echoes of the Epic, pp. 161-73
- 108v, below two lines at top (discorso di Carlomagno): the vignette is almost completely within in a red frame; the king is in center, on his throne, under a tent, with three figures on either side; to our left, someone in red with white undersleeves pink kerchief (Turpin?), someone in yellow behind (no more is visible) and in front, pink with the striped hat (Naimes); to the king’s left (our right), Roland (wearing quartered red and white), a figure in pink short skirt (Ysoré?- v. 5723), and person in red with a hat similar to that of the pink figure- flat and perhaps originally striped? Some white and blue/grey
- 109r, middle of page (i saraceni chiedono di Rolando): to the left, four figures, the front one in the process of kneeling, facing right one of the two others, furthest to the left, is in a hooded robe of purple with a red undercap, another is in a short yellow gown and at his side, in the background, is a man in a long red gown; Roland is on horseback in the center facing them, before Charlemagne (white-bearded and crowned, with wand of office), who is under a striped tent on his throne beside man in pink with white striped cap at his right (Naimes, v. 5719). Ysoré is begging Roland to keep Charlemagne from hanging him (v. 5731ff)
- 109v, middle of page (Rolando si toglie le armi): in frame, to left, mountains; group of men around Roland in his tent. He is wearing his quartered tunic; his pennon and two red flags fly behind the tent. He had left with Girard and Oliver. According to the text, Richard of Normandy, Ogier and Naimes with the white beard are the messengers from Charlemagne. One man is is a long red gown, with lots of blond hair- perhaps the same as was with Ysoré in the previous miniature, so this seems to be before their arrival
- 110v, again, in middle of page (Rolando di fronte a Carlomagno): Charlemagne to right on his throne, under tent, with a figure in pink (Turpin?) and one in a striped hat (Naimes) to his right, facing Ysoré bending a knee and another man (in short pink hooded outfit). Charlemagne is telling Ysoré to send a messenger to his father to exchange Estout (Ostos), v. 5826, and they will negotiate
- 111r, below five lines of text (Gauter di fronte a Carlomagno): Charlemagne to right speaking to another man in front of him in purple now on his knee, and a second bald man behind him in a short green outfit with a red cloth over his shoulder. Beside Charlemagne, man in purple with striped hat (Naimes) and one in green hooded cloak (priest?) in partial profile behind. Charlemagne is sending Gauter d’Orlin to Pampelune, and sends Ysoré with Jofroi, with whom he goes, but not before Ysoré speaks with Gauter about his father (vv. 5862 ff)
- 111v, top of page (Gauter presso la tenda di Carlomagno): city to the left, two figures facing frontally-shown Charlemagne in his tent on his throne (with two figures – Naimes in his fur hat—and the figure in a hooded blue cloak (Turpin? Other cleric?)—facing right by his right side, as always, and armed men in the background on the right). Ysoré is speaking with Gauter, who looks back towards a shorter figure in red, arranging to send his ring so that his father knows he is well (v. 5882)
Different style begins: no frame but still in center of writing space, not out to edges
- 112r, middle of page (Estout a cospetto di Malgeris): in Pamplune. The city is visible to the left. Men in turbans at the center look right toward Hestout who is in front of them, before the crowned king Maugeris, on is on the throne (with dark beard and red gown) looking toward them, in a tower. He has long fingers, and is pointing at Hestout. Hestout is saying who he is (vv. 5906-08)
- 112v, middle of page (Estout e Malgeris): frame around king scene, with city walls to the right. Two soldiers stand at the left; a man in a short outfit sits by the king (Estout); two men in turbans stand by the King to his left; the city wall with Ghibelline merlons appears at the right of the illumination. Maugeris has had Hestout sit by him (v. 5922) and talk of negotiations for his son
- 113v, bottom of page (Rolando presso la tenda di Carlomagno): two men in short outfits of red and white stand—Roland in the middle in his red-and-white quartered outfit—facing Charlemagne. Charlemagne sits on his on throne under a tent at the right (holding his golden wand of office with fleur-de-lys at end). There are two men on each side of him, one in his right in purplish-red with striped hat (Naimes) and another in a hooded red robe with white undercoif; on his left is a man in hooded purple and one in hooded blue. These are Roland (blond) and Ulivier (hooded) before Charlemagne telling him he has sent a message (vv. 5990-91)
- 114r, middle of page (Gauter presso la tenda di Carlomagno): to the left, there is a rock; then the two armed men; a blonde man in red on bended knee, facing to the right, the crowned and bearded Charlemagne on his throne under his tent, where he has 2 men on either side of him. The white striped hat (Naimes) and purple hood are on Charlemagne’s right, two other hooded men are on his left. Gauter, son of Begon, accepts the message from Charlemagne to Maugeris
- 114v, middle of page (Gauter cavalca verso Pamplona). An armed man on white horse in red and with red horse trappings arrives at the city; two witnesses (maybe three-white rounding behind them) watch his arrival. This is Gauter arriving at Pampelune
- 115r a, under three lines of text (Gauter in città): Gauter is inside the city walls, riding to see the king
- 115r b, bottom (Gauter al cospetto di Malgeris): inside a room, Maugeris is on a throne inside an apse, where two white-turbaned, long-dressed men stand to his right (they all facing left). Gauter is before him, facing right to give his message
- 116r, top (discussione fra Gauter e Malgeris): the illumination is in a frame. Inside the city, Gauter speaks to Maugeris and his counselors; there are the same general poses as before, but by a different miniaturist
- 116v, top of page below five lines (discussione fra Gauter e Malgeris): Similar to the last last two illuminations, but again a different artist. The scene is shortened, with only upper bodies visible
- 117r, middle of page (discussione fra Gauter e Malgeris): still in the city, two soldiers escorting and behind Gauter, who hooded in red but with his blonde hair showing; one man (Gauter) with blonde hair and in whitish purple, facing man with white turban (Nabor) and crowned king in red; this is Hestout before Maugeris
- 118r, bottom of page above two lines of text (Gauter riferisce a Carlomagno): rocks to left; armed men; then Gauter on his knees, all facing Charlemagne who sits on his throne under a red and blue tent, with two men to his right (Naimes in his fur hat and someone else not quite visible behind him) and one to his left (with his back to us) in a hooded cloak; Gauter is reporting back to Charlemagne
- 119v, top of page below six lines of text (Rolando conduce Isoré davanti a Carlomagno): Roland and Ysoré before Carlomagno (holding hands)- Roland behind, so Ysoré reaching backward; two men stand to Charlemagne’s right (one in yellow with the fur hat, and to the right of him, the profile of another man in red is visible; to Charlemagne’s left, three is a cloaked and hooded man; Charlemagne crowned is seated, holding his wand of office, white haired under baldacchino sort of tent, striped red and blue
- 120r, bottom of page above one line of text (Rolando entra in città con Isoré): Roland (in his quartered outfit) enters the city after a man on horseback (Ysoré), who is halfway through the gateway. There are flat merlons on the city here (Guelf). The illumination style after this changes, there is no margin to frame the sides of the picture as there is in this miniature.
- 120v, bottom of page (Isoré davanti al padre): Ysoré stands before his father the king, who is crowned and also standing, inside a walled-in area; the outside merlins are swallow-tailed. King Maugeris is brown-haired king, and there are people on his right (including one in a turban)
From 122 back to having a frame around most of the scene (all but throne room to the right)
- 122r a, at top, below three lines of text (Isoré incontra la madre): inside the city; people (women?) in long red outfits stand at the left, facing right. They have long blond hair done up on their heads. In front of them, a woman with a very elaborate crown and a blue dress with gold decorations and a white underskirt holds Ysoré’s hand. He’s facing left, toward her. In the throne room, separated by an arch and on what looks like a raised dais, the king faces left, toward his son and wife, with turbaned men in front and to his right, facing him
- 122r b, at bottom of page (Isoré parla con suo padre), inside the city still, same people in red facing right, then Ysoré in his mother’s arms (he’s small/ short); men with turbans and exotic outfits facing seated, crowned king who looks left at him from under his archway. To the left, the wall seems to be topped with metal spikes (like modern fences to keep people from climbing in)
- 122v, bottom of page (Malgeris ascolta le parole del figlio): different style; figures in red are women (hairstyles!). They and his mother lean forward to the right; Ysoré is in front of them. Figures in turbans in background stand to Maugeris’s right; he is on his throne in an archway. One of the turbaned men has a very long finger raised toward the king
- 123r, middle of page (Malgeris convoca Estout per invitare i Franchi a lasciare la Spagna): Maugeris is in the center in red, crowned, dark hair and beard, frontal view; several warriors are to his left, and a man in green; another figure (Estout?). On the king’s left (our right) are Ysoré and exotically dressed men (in turbans) facing the king
- 124v, bottom of page (Estout e Isoré si salutano): in the middle of scene are Estout and Ysoré. To the left, there is a mountain, to the right the city entrance with the portcullis visible at the top of the gateway. A horse with red caparison decorated with gold shields bearing a black creature (dragon? With a red mane) rampant crossed through it is accompanied by a black horse and armed man in the background, and Estout facing left. Another armed horseman is partially visible in the background behind Ysoré. Ysoré is facing in the other direction, right; and an armed man precedes Ysoré, also facing right, toward the gateway with swallow-tailed merlons. There is a red frame around all of the vignette except the gateway, and it is on a dark blue background
- 125v, middle of page (Estout e il cavaliere del basilisco presso la tenda di Carlomagno): horse with the red caparison decorated with two gold-colored designs of crossed black figures (basilisks, de Mandach; v. 6625) from Ysoré, as in the previous scene, and a gree-clothed man stand to the left behind Estout (who occupies the central position), all facing right. Roland and Charlemagne’s tent, throne, etc., occupy the right side, facing left. Roland reaches out to Estout; Charlemagne sits on the far right, facing left (with a white beard, crown (no wand). In front of him to his right (our left) the figure in red with the white fur-striped cap (Naimes) faces him, with his back to Roland. Various other figures in the background behind Roland
- 126r, top of page (Estout riferisce quanto è avvenuto): the framed miniature, with a dark blue background shows two scenes in one; first on to left, Estout talking to a man dressed in red (his seneschal, perhaps, v. 6636). Then, Charlemagne is on his throne, in a frontal view, with Estout to his right (our left), Naimes on his left (our right) in his usual red with his fur hat; other men are behind them, including the pink-hooded person in a long robe
- 126v, middle of page (Estout riferisce quanto è avvenuto): from the left: horse with the basilisk caparison and a groom (Chali, v. 6539) facing right; Estout and Naimes, along with others, on Charlemagne’s right, are on our left facing Charlemagne on his throne under a baldicchino on the right; Charlemagne faces left. The horse is a gift of Ysoré to Roland
- 127r, middle of page (ordini di Charlemagne): to the left is a rock, then armed men and various young men, blond and dark-haired, in shorter skirts, facing right. Charlemagne stands under tent on the right with Naimes and another man on his right, two men on his left (including one in a pink cloak with hood and white undercoif), all facing left. Estout is in the middle, facing Charlemagne. Question: since there is much discussion between Roland, Estout and Charlemagne here, perhaps the young man in red only is Roland, and the pink is Estout? If so, this would be the only section where Roland is not in a quartered outfit
- 127v a, at top under one line of text (Guarin de Montarchon parla a Charlemagne): Gui de Roche Agüe, v. 6704 speaks to Charlemagne; it is in a sketchy, different style, in a red frame except for at the bottom of the miniature. There are soldiers to the left, a hooded and cloaked figure in green (Guarin?); Charlemagne sitting under pointed cover (not rounded arch, and with no tent); Naimes in his fur cap is on Charles’s left (our right) with others; to the far right are soldiers and another figure talking with one soldier
- 127v b, bottom of page (Guarin de Montarchon parla a Charlemagne): soldiers fill the background; in front, figure in a long blue outfit with a red hat talking to Charlemagne in the center, under tent of green and red; on the right, two figures in hooded long outfits, one in red (like Turpin elsewhere) and one in blue (fur-cap Naimes absent); speaking about Noble, how rich it is (news had just come that the advance guard had been attacked)
- 128v, middle of the page (Carlomagno parla con Rolando): Roland at left, kneeling, with some other men; Naimes (fur-hat) to Charlemagne’s right (our left); Charlemagne on throne in center, crowned; pink cloak (Turpin?) and more armed men on the right (Charlemagne’s left)
- 129v, top of page under four lines of text (Carlomagno e Rolando danno ordini all’esercito): soldiers are to the left; a man blowing a trumpet with Roland’s quartered sign on it is in the center; another man begins to kneel, bearing Roland’s quartered banner, facing right in front of Charlemagne and Roland together who face left on the left of the vignette, both with arms out, under the baldicchino; two men are behind Charlemagne, one in red with the white undercoif (Turpin?)
- 130r a, top of page, under five lines of text (notizie a Charlemagne): from left, we see two soldiers; a man in green; a man in pink (the German informer, v. 6843), leaning on bended knee toward Charlemagne, who is crowned, seated, on his throne holding the wand of power; a man in blue with hat, the man in pink hood (Turpin?), one soldier looking right, and a group of soldiers to the right: the vignette is centered on Charlemagne, pictured frontally though leaning to the left
- 130r b, middle of the page, above 5 lines (preparativi per l’assedio): from left, men putting on armor (helmet, leg pieces); the informer and another man in a short pink outfit; on the right, the seated Charlemagne facing left, with Naimes in his fur-hat to his right with another man in red; to his left, the man in a hooded pink robe (Turpin?) and the person in a blue hat, blotted. They are preparing for the assault of Pamplune
- 130v, bottom of page, full breadth (trasporto di botti su un carro): from the left: men on horseback to left, headed right; carts with barrels on their sides and three men; a fourth man with beasts, riding in front; wheat sheaves and rock (see vv. 6860ff, carrying wine and meat so that everyone may drink)
- 131r, middle of page (ordini all’esercito): to left, is a rock; then, armed men standing facing left, toward a standing Charlemagne. Charles is in a tent opening, with two men behind him, the person in a hooded pink cloak (Turpin?) and the one in a blue hat
- 131v, center of page (riposo di Charlemagne): on left are multiple tents, including one with two men that is open, where we see two men lying down, eyes open. Next appears Charlemagne’s green and red tent, also open, where he lies on his side, with pillow roll and gloves; he’s sleeping dressed and armed on the ground (vv. 6924-6928); outside, armed men around facing left toward Charles and the tent. To the right, a group of armed men on horseback face right, and seem to be moving right (vv. 6915, 6924, Charlemagne’s personal guard mounted)
- 132r, center of page (Carlomagno a cavallo): to the left, the usual rock, then armed men on horseback; Charlemagne, mounted, in center with spear but not armed; the face of a figure in pinkish brown to his right is in the background; to the far right, by the tent and on foot, are two robed and hooded men, one in pink and one in blue blue
- 132v, below two lines at the top of the page (l’esercito si approssima alle mura): on the left, a group of soldiers behind Roland approaches the walls of a town, Pamplune, full of armed men all the men’s faces are visible on both sides
- 133r, below four lines from the top (battaglia nel bosco): in the forest, Salemon de Bertagne fights the Germans who were thinking to leave. The Germans think these are pagans and Salemon’s men think the others are
- 133v, middle of the page (Carlomagno incontra l’esercito): Charlemagne is to the left, with the gilded top of his tent in the background, rocks and growth in the foreground; in front of him, to his left, Naimes in his cap with white fur points to the right. There are a few armed warriors around them. To the right, three armed men face them (Naimes speaks, vv. 7023ff)
- 134r a, below six lines of text (Charlemagne e Namo si separano): to the left, Charlemagne, on horseback, returns left with armed men but looking backwards; Naimes, in the center, with an armed man behind him in the background, goes right to speak to his relative Herbert about his attempt to leave Charlemagne’s army with his men (Herbert is Naimes’s sister’s son (v. 7026), and here is not wearing a helm)
- 134r b, bottom of the page (Carlomagno incontra delle dame): Herbert and his men (left) kneel before Charlemagne, slightly right of center on horseback, backed by armed men
- 134 v a, middle of page (le dame condotte nel padiglione di Charlemagne): Herbert and co-conspirators are conducted (center) ahead of Charlemagne (left) and his knights to Charlemagne’s tent (right- throne visible inside, protected by a few armed men outside of it) by Guinelon, Guinimer and Rambal de Soison, Hernalt and lord of Maschon (vv. 7056-58)
- 134v b, bottom of the page (Namo incontra Salomone): on left, man in red at head of armed men; on right Naimes in his hat decorated with fur, ahead of a group of armed men, and there are rocks behind him
- 135r, bottom of page (Carlomagno incontra Namo e Salamone): on the left, Charlemagne mounted, ahead of armed men, finger out; to the right, facing Charlemagne, Naimes (in his fur-lined hat) also with finger out and Salamone (in red, with a distinctive rounded hairdo)
- 135v, above three lines at the bottom of the page (discussione tra Charlemagne e Salamone): mounted Naimes (in his fur-hat) in front of armed men on the left; mounted Charlemagne on the right in front of armed men
- 136r, middle of page (Carlomagno incontra Rolando): All are on horseback. To the left, Estout and Roland are in front of armed men facing Charlemagne, who also has armed men behind him
- 136v, bottom of page (taglio di alberi nel bosco): to the left, Charlemagne in his tent is being disarmed; armed men are outside the tent, and to the right, five men are chopping trees (that look like ferns), vv. 7160ff, to make siege engines
- 137r a, under five lines of text at the top (construzione di strutture per l’assedio): the Christians are building a “chastel” for the war (siege engine): multiple men on the right, some helmeted, three not, including one with a metal tool; two inside the device, including Roland; two to the right outside, one with a hatchet. There are helmeted men at the same point as Roland, it’s not clear whether or not they too are inside the enclosure or just behind it
- 137r b, bottom, above five lines of text (Rolando nell’accampamento): Roland is in the soldiers’ camp: one tent on the left has four soldiers beside it; a man in red is speaking with Roland (Bernart, who speaks Spanish, vv. 7170-71). He is wearing a helmet and leg armor, facing Roland, who in turn is in front of his tent with a few helmeted men in the background
- 137v, bottom of page above 2 lines of text (un carpentiere al cospetto di Carlomagno mentre Bernard se ne va): to the left are tents including Charlemagne’s in red, green and gold. Charlemagne stands in front of it with his wand of office and several soldiers behind him; a man is on bended knee in front with several armed men; this is the head of the builders, vv. 7192ff, with a portion of the text inbetween Bernard’s departure and his arrival missing, where it explains that this is the head of the builders and the construction is completed. To the right, man dressed as a pilgrim is starting out toward hill in right margin (Bernard is going to Noble to spy at Roland’s request)
- (OK) 138r, above two lines at the bottom (il carro d’assalto): In a frame are pictured two carts like miniature castles (even with merlons) on wheels; Charlemagne is in second one with armed men; there is a little in-between one (for arrows?) and the front one is filled with armed men. The convoy is preceeded by armed men, all headed to the right. At the left there seem to be men behind long shields
- 139r (in the online and distributed MS copy, this is now at the position of 140r, though it reads clearly ‘139’ at the top), above two lines of text at bottom (il carro sotto le mura di Pamplona): two scenes- to the left, Charlemagne and men at mass (from the left: altar under a cover; the priest and a tonsured monk; then Charlemagne, Naimes in his fur-hat and a figure in a green outfit are on their knees). To the right of the illumination, Charlemagne, Naimes, Roland and a pink-cloaked hooded figure stand in front of tents in a circle.
- 139v (now in the position of 138v), middle of page (il carro sotto le mura di Pamplona): to the left, Charlemagne with his advisors in front of tent: dark blue caped figure to our left; Naimes in his white-hat to our right of the king; a mustard-covered figure is behind Naimes. Men and horses with the “castle” occupy the middle of the frame; to the right, is city of Pamplona with the crowned king Maugeris looking out together with two armed men [NB: Charlemagne’s crown more elaborate with pointed-type merlons; the pagan king has flat type decorations, though the city’s tower merlons are pointed)
- 140r (position of 139r), below three lines of text (Charlemagne assiste alla messa): to the left, armed men and the cart appear with helmeted men behind it; these are the young men riskily making a ploy without Charlemagne’s knowledge. In the inside of the tower, king in red with five turbaned men, arranging to “undo” the siege engine (vv. 7298-300).
- 140v, bottom of the page (attacco alla città): from the left: men on horseback with red banners; men in the castle on wheels, climbing up walls; on the right, facing left: archers on the ground, men looking out of window in tower (including man in helmet with crown over it! Men also on walkway above the first level of tower, above the king
- 141r, above five lines of text at the bottom of the page (il carro incendiato): the second car of the siege engine train is on fire; from the other, soldiers are throwing water on it; in city, there is fighting, fighting, with men hanging bleeding over the battlements and under the wall. In the gateway at the far right of the illumination, dead men lying in the entry
- 141v, in the middle of the folio (gli assediati escono dalle mura): on the left, the cart is burning; mounted soldiers face the city; the king leads a sortie, with soldiers coming out of city gateway at the far right
- 142r, below four lines of text at the top of the page (Carlomagno visita il campo dopo la battaglia): Charlemagne at left with armed men visits the area outside the city where the battle took place. Many dead soldiers are piled up; a fire burns outside the gate; and wood sticks protrude from the gate like a nailed-over entrance
- 142v, top, below two lines of text (Drogemant alla corte di Malgeris): inside the city, a man in a turban, a messenger from Marsile, the overlord, talks to king Maugeris and two advisors in turbans, with several armed soldiers behind them to the right.
- 143v, middle of page (banchetto a Pamplona): two tables are set, perpendicular to each other. The scene is indoors; at the left, turbaned men stand at the end of the room, and one smaller figure in green, a messenger from Marsile, is nearer the middle of the frame, facing king Maugeris who is in the center, dressed in red and wearing his crown. On white table cloths, there are drinking vessels, with a couple of pitchers at the front on the first table, and round objects along the sides of both tables
- 144r, center of the page (cena nella tenda di Carlomagno): from the left- there are two tents and many helmeted soldiers. The large green and red tent with fleur-de-lis, Charlemagne’s, occupies the right half of the frame. There, Charlemagne is in the center, with white hair and crown; Naimes in his white-fur hat is to Charles’s immediate right, then man in the hooded blue outfit with red around the hood. To Charlemagne’s left (our right), there is a figure in green with a red hood; these four are all seated behind a table covered with a white cloth, where we see drinking vessels and brown objects. There are two men in front of the table, one in green with red stockings kneeling, and one in purple with red stockings bent over, serving. The one in green is Aimonet de Paris, v. 7502, spy reporting on Saracen actions
- 144v, at top, under one line of text (Carlomagno discute con Rolando): in Charlemagne’s tent, with helmeted soldiers in the the background (who seem much bigger than the tent!). All are standing. Naimes in his white-fur hat stands behind Roland; both are facing right, toward Charlemagne. Charlemagne in a short red outfit, wearing his crown, and has his right arm around Roland (v. 7528). On Charles’s left (our right) is a man in purple with a red opened hood (Oliver, v. 7529); two men at the left are removing a table, one wearing red, the other wearing green with red stockings
- 145r, bottom of page, entire width (Rolando suona l’olifante): armed men stand to the left, their horses in the background. In the foreground, two men are putting on armor, one bending over as if to fasten his spurs. There are two tents to the right, one just the edge of it, but the second totally visible. It’s Roland’s green tent, and he stands at entrance, blowing his olifant (v. 7578)
- 146r, middle of page (l’esercito in marcia): from the left, armed men on horseback face right, their horses’ legs up as if marching. Roland, at the far right just before a mountain, is at the head of the column, with his quartered pennon flying
- 146v, bottom above five lines of text (incontro tra i due eserciti): Roland (in quartered outfit, on white horse) and his men on the left, pagans on the right, all with their with banners flying (pagans: yellow with black diamonds & red with a star). The center of the vignette shows space on the field between the two groups. The archbishop is with him Roland, v. 7611- maybe one of the flags is his (there are three: red with stripe and two yellow suns; blue with red strip and a red spot on each side; green and yellow, with three green dots on the yellow side; one is incomplete, just a red outline
- 147r a, middle of page (i due eserciti si fronteggiano): Roland and his men with multiple flags on the left (Roland’s red and white, together with a green/white); on the right, three flags are visible, one red with two stars, one yellow with black, and one white with black (the men, except for Roland, are indistinguishable, since all armed and with the same open helms)
- 147r b, bottom of page, across the whole page (i due eserciti si fronteggiano): Roland on left talks to another knight, facing each other: their face-masks, up, are visible; to the right, the king in armor leads his men (a crown is over his helm); this is Maugeris (v. 7654) with army and multiple flags behind facing the Christians
- 147v, lower middle of page (Rolando e Malgeris): Roland on left (soldiers behind him into the left margin) speaks to Maugeris on the right, with many armed men quite behind him; many banners flying on both sides (including Roland’s, much wiped out; for the pagans, the moor on white and the basilisk on green with two others)
- 148v, middle of page, all the way across, unusual for the middle of the page (l’esercito si divide): it is hard to tell who’s who, since no banners or specific designations are provided. There are three groups: on the left, facing right, with swords out, led by an armed man on a white horse; in the middle, facing left, spears out, a second group; and on the right, moving right, another group of armed men led by warrior on a white horse with two thin (undecorated) banners. These last include an unarmed man in brown and pack-horse with supplies strapped on. This last must be Turquin (v. 7548) and his men going to Pamplune with all the goods via a short-cut (v. 7549-51). The center group must be going to fight Roland and his men, the far left group
- 149r a, below one line of text (battaglia): Roland and his men on the left with their lances out towards king Maugeris (with his crown over his helm on the right, in a frame that is only width of text
- 149r b, bottom of page, full width of page (battaglia): Roland is on the left (with his quartered tunic and pennon); there is also a red cross on a white background (perhaps the archbishop?); blue and brown pennons are also partially visible behind. There is a mixed melée in the foreground, with one man on the ground- perhaps Turpin is the horsed man, with his Spanish opponent on the ground (vv. 7773-76). To the right (facing left) there are four more flags. These are the pagan flags: one is dark blue with red bands; one is red with white bands, one is the white with the moor; a mustard colored pennon is in background. Several men on the front lines have their visors open, flipped above their faces; one (facing left) in front has his visor closed
- 151r, bottom of page, full width and tower rising into right margin (scontro sotto le mura): two sides on horseback facing each other, no pennons present. To the right is a tower, with helmets visible inside. Archers on foot are immediately outside (vv. 7887), with helmets (except one, with the broad-brimmed hat) but no armor, protecting the gateway entry to the city; two men bloodied on the ground facing right. The Christians are outnumbered, so that pagans are able to re-enter Pamplune without difficulty
- 151v, middle of page (incontro fra Salomone e Rolando): Roland facing left, outside of Pamplona with two other knights (city as before, with helmets visible inside and red pennons); to the left, man in red and many armed men, including two pennants, one red with white star and one white with black half-ladder (not sure what to call it- cf. 147r b)
- 152v, above five text lines at the bottom (Rolando nell’accampamento): from the left: tents and armed men with Roland a little toward the right of center. He has his helm off and faces right toward Charlemagne who stands in front of his tent, with Naimes in his white-fur hat to the right (Charlemagne’s left) and a yellow-cloaked and hooded person behindboth of them
- 153r, below four lines of text (Rolando promette a Charlemagne che sconfiggerà i Saraceni): again from the left, armed soldiersthen Roland (helmless), together in front of Charlemagne’s tent. Charlemagne holds Roland’s right hand in his own right hand (v. 7983). All are standing; Naimes in his white-fur hat to his left, red-cloak (Turpin) also beyond that (both our right of Charlemagne, toward the right border of the vignette)
- 153v, middle, toward bottom of page (consiglio alla corte di Malgeris): the entire miniature is the city and inside it. From the left: there is a gateway, and then a room. In that room, a man in red sitting facing five others. He is wearing brown headgear. A man in green stands with his finger pointing (probably Baligant, vv. 8024-8039); 4 others sitting on his side, two with turbans, the others with bowl-type hair cuts; all but one have beards (Baligant, Maugeris, son, and barons, v. 8014-15)
- 154r, middle of page (consiglio alla corte di Malgeris): six men are present, five sitting, inside a room, similar to the previous miniature, but here all wear crowns and the external portion of the building is omitted, we are in a room. The third from the left is standing with his hand up; this is Augalie, uncle of Marsile and Maligant (v. 8042), whose speech dominates this folio
- 155r, top under two lines of text (consiglio alla corte di Malgeris): similar to the previous illumination, but with a bigger tower to the right and more of city there. In the room, from the left margin, 6 men are present, all with crowns, and the third from right is standing. This is Fauseron, ruler of Nobie (v. 8085)
- 156r, top, under five lines of text (consiglio alla corte di Malgeris): similar to the previous miniature, six men are seated, all wear crowns. There is a tower and part of the walls to the right into the margin and above into the top margin
- 157v, bottom of page (celebrazione religiosa interrotta da Rolando): under an open baldacchino on the left, a priest stands facing the altar with an altar-boy behind him. Charlemagne stands at edge of the baldacchino in the center of the framed vignette, facing forward and looking slightly to the right. Roland in his quartered red-and-white outfit is to his right, facing him, and speaking with him. Naimes in his fur-hat and the blue-cowled watcher stand further right, near tents. In v. 8246, last of page, the text specifies that Charlemagne has Trepin sing the mass; the archbishop says “Ite missa” and “Deus vos benïe” (v. 8256). This is then Turpin in his religious garb
- 158r, bottom of page, across entire page (Carlomagno riunisce l’esercito): the army appears to the left on horseback. Charlemagne is to right, on foot beside his white horse, in front of a tent unarmed but wearing his crown. A few armed men are on foot behind him, at the edge of the vignette, also facing left as he is
- 158v, bottom of page above one line of text (Carlomagno riunisce l’esercito): Charlemagne appears mounted on his white horse in the center; he crowned, dressed in his usual red, with a long white beard and hair. He is not armed, but armed men are around him also on horseback. Charles is facing a little to the left in the center; the men are in a semi-circle around him
- 159r, middle of the the page (Carlomagno discute con Rolando): to the left facing right, there are armed men on horseback, with Roland (in his red-and-white quartered outfit, and helm) in front of them with his right arm raised; they face right. To the right, are armed men on horseback, with Charlemagne in front, holding out baton in his right hand toward Roland, offering him to lead the army (vv. 8302-03). Roland is refusing to lead any but his own men, pulling his right hand back (vv. 8304-13).
Miniaturist #4: A- according to d’Arcais (160v and 161- cf. # 2 but more refined), de Mandach and Bisson, beginning of the battle of Pamplune with miniaturist # 4. B- Toesca: miniaturist # 1 for 160v-161r; C-Novello, part of first phase, ff. 160v-161r, third miniaturist; D- Marcon, miniaturist 1 for 162v-217r; miniaturist 2 for 161r; miniaturist for 111r-160r; 160v-162r undecided
160v-161r: multiple scenes, entire pages (scontro sotto le mura di Pamplona)
Left folio: ladies watching in balcony above left of center; as de Mandach says this page concentrates on the Saracens: note the dark faces on that side. Horses’ caparisons are the only indication of possible identities. To the center right, are the Christians; one is on a horse in red blanket with gold trimmings; several others have, no horse blankets, though there is a white horse present. One rider has his back toward the viewer, in an interesting view of the horse’s rear and the knight raising his sword. The armor of all fighters is quite unusual, patterned like cloth. All have triangular shields. On the Saracen side, to the left: there is one green horse blanket with white and gold edges; one in pink with green over rear striped with red. Another is blue, and a third red and white striped, then a fourth pink and green striped. This last is on the horse of the crowned man in front
161r- second initial, “E”, top of page toward center with gold leaf on the outside (iniziale in campo dorato, istoriata con arciere sull’albero che minaccia Malgeris): woman a long gown of in red and gold nocks an arrow toward a man being held by another woman in red. Lejeune and Stiennons note that this refers to the incomplete passage in vv. 5150ff, where archers from Pamplona assist Maugeris to help rescue his son (p. 248)
161r, concentrates on Christians; at the top of the folio are four lines, the beginning of laisse 357. In the illumination, armed soldiers face left in groups; the king, in the center, wears a crown but seems unarmored; he’s on a horse with blue caparaison bearing golden eagles, and is followed by a flag of the same device: behind him ride several men, one on a horse in red and green caparaison with gold edging holding the blue banner with dragon facing upwards (tail down); in the foreground, a man on horse with red caparaison decorated with green (these look like card-deck clubs); two other men follow him, the last with a red shield of two crossed keys of St. Peter, Turpin
Miniaturist #3 again, according to de Mandach, Marcon and Bisson; end of the battle
161v (battaglia senza Rolando): women seem to looking down from window above, but very damaged. Thee are many pennons: Roland’s is at the far left (quartered red and white); brown (?) with Moor silhouette; white with green dragons; red with white bigarres; blue with dragons; red with white (design blocked by next one); brown with brown losenges. Lots of helmeted men; one with back toward the viewer, in a round helmet would be the king of Frisia (Novello 2016, p. 117), all outside the walls of Pamplona in hand-to-hand combat. Roland and his flag are in the background to the left: the red and white quartered pennon
162r (Rolando decide di attaccare Noble): A group of armed men face left, led in the background by a king in crown over helmet; again many flags, here pennons (triangular), from left to right: red with yellow circles; green with black lozenges diagonal; black and white; red with sun (?) in middle- damaged; in foreground, two pennons; one mostly blocked, checkered black and brownish-green; white with moor insignia, held by the man in a round helmet; these are the pagans coming from behind (vv. ). Novello suggests that this is Roland with the peers abandoning Charlemagne at Pamplona (2016 p. 118)
- 162v a, middle of page (battaglia di Carlomagno): left, two pennons, green with stars, red with white dots and graph design above the illumination; right, three pennons, blue with half-a-ladder, white with red, and green with white; foreground, man falling off horse to right, pierced by Charlemagne on left (with visor down and crown over helm); round helm in middle in back
- 162v b, below four lines from first illumination, at bottom of page (battaglia di Carlomagno): left, man in red, & bowl helm, with red pennon and white stars and slash facing armed man in brown with eagle on chest from right; front, king with lance piercing man (up-close!); on right, two pennons, red with white upside-down v and three flowers; white with red lines partially blocked by other
163r-170v (14 miniatures of battle)
- 163r, two lines above bottom of page: two pennons to the left (red with white star; green with designs washed out and hidden behind other); right, red with circle and star; blue behind it and another that is worn away; figure to left with helm closed and in red (but no crown). Figure with funny face and round helm here too
- 163v, middle of page: figures to left seem to be advancing, led by one in red with closed helm; round helm in back of left; no pennons
- 165r, at top under three lines of text: front figure on left with closed helm pierced by lance; on right, closed helm in pink, no pennons
- 165v, middle of page: again left and right groups fighting, those in front with visors; red on the left, pink on the right
- 166r, top of page under one line of text: similar to above
- 166v, top of page under one line of text: those on right penetrating line of those on left
- 167r: bottom of page, all the way across; even more mixed lines, held of left force with lance in body of man down on the right; swordsmen on foot vs. visored horseman on right (also off horse?)
- 167v, middle of page: men at front of both sides lying prone on their horses with lances sticking in; both in visor, and one behind too
- 168r: below one line of text at top: all in visors on horseback with swords out
- 168v: bottom of page above one line of text: men in front with visors, behind not on left, and bleeding; phalanx-like on right
- 169r: middle of page: two sides fights with swords on horseback; no pennons or ids
- 169v: middle of page; again; here though front man down on right by left visored leader
- 170r: top of page below two lines of text: again, left vs. right, but here, brown horse on left, white on right (reverse of earlier)
- 170v: top of page below two lines of text: white horse on right, brown on left; leader on white piercing leader on brown (no pennons)
- 171r: arrivo di Carlomagno, bottom of page: leaders crowned; to the left, visored in red on brown horse, to the right in blue with fleur-de-lis on white horse (first time Xians on right?); v. 8749, “Carles fu devant… a flor de lis” (8751)
- 172r center of page: (battaglia?) wounded Ysoré on Christian horse, finding his friends (esp. Falsiron) in battle, announcing Charlemagne’s arrival (v. 8813)
- 173r bottom of page: Carlomagno in battaglia? King in red on left, fighting men facing right with him, and others coming from left; swords out
- 173v, scene di battaglia, bottom of page above one line: closed visor at left on white lancing closed visor on right, helmeted men on horseback in the background
- 174r, scene di battaglia, bottom of page: visored knight in pink on white horse, right, knocked down visored knight in red on left from brown horse
- 174v Rolando in battaglia, above two lines of text at the bottom: Roland on white horse on the left with sword out, others around him, both sides
- 175r, Namo in battaglia, middle of page: brown horse with pink outfitted knight, visor closed, whacking red-outfitted knight on white horse on left
- 175v a, below two lines of text (Namo in battaglia): left, visor closed, on brown horse, with white horse slightly behind him; many helmeted soldiers on horseback
- 175v b, bottom of page, just the width of the text column (Carlomagno in battaglia): on the left- in blue with fleur-d-lis and crown, no armor, on white horse with red reins and saddle; sword in front of him, drawing blood from a man in red at right
- 176r, main miniature below six lines of text, but pennons above, three lines below (assedio): on the left, red with white “M”and two dots; white with black silhouette; king, with white flag decorated with green dragon couchant breathing flames. To the right, facing left, Charlemagne in his blue outfit and crown, on white horse; group of mounted men about to enter the city- Malçaris and his son (8956)
- 177r, at bottom above four lines of text (Rolando incontra Bernard): Roland and men on horseback (Vaillantin, for Roland), with a huge Bernard “a loi d’un pelegrin” (v. 8984), towered city behind him (out of proportion); promises him Noble in the morning
- 177v, bottom of page Rolando incontra Bernard (bis): just Roland and Bernard (with right hand extended)
- 179r, bottom of page (Rolando e Oliveiro in cammino); facing right, Rolando in his split outfit, riding with Bernard, who had changed his clothes from pilgrim to warrior (v. 9054-9059)- Bernard leads them (v. 9072, change into fighting gear); others upset at leaving Charlemagne at Pamplune, discussion with Bernard turning back
- 180v, bottom of page, above 5 lines of text (accampamento di Carlomagno); see above, more of same
- 181r, bottom of page [accompamento di Carlomagno]: tents, Charlemagne mounted (in blue with gold fleurs-de-lis and crown) at right, facing left with another warrior; men at far left armed and mounted also (French leaving battle in the city when Germans say Roland has left go back to tents, v. 9198); Charlemagne furious, can’t menace them enough to return (v. 9200)
- 183v, bottom of page (attacco alla città [Pamplona]): Roland (white and red outfit) at top of left, with men, all on horseback, outside of city; footsoldiers with bows and arrows in lower right; armed men behind them, all in front of city
- 185v, top below one line of text (consiglio dell’esercito): Roland and his men outside Nobles; Bernard speaking to the men – figure with his back to the reader wears a round hat (Bernard?) (unclear which one if any is Roland), according to the text, near an unused chapel
- 186r, bottom of page (consiglio dell’esercito [Bernard and Oliver]), same (?) figure in red speaking to men (no building nearby, and framed, within the edges of text, not spreading out); this time we see him from the side, not in a round helm; he’s on the right center, looking left. Text on this folio, Bernard speaking to Oliver, setting him and his men by the Paris gate to go in when it’s opened to take out pasturing animals
- 187r, above four lines of text at the bottom of the page (Bernard e Ogier): Bernard organizing Ogier to Baram’s gate, the most dangerous
- 188r, bottom above four lines of text (discussione tra Bernard, Ogier e Rolando [in quartered outfit]): Bernard is leaving Ogier after explaining his assignment, and taking Roland and his troop to their placement with Gerart de Rousillon and Hestout; they go to the Val Gate, to a dry swamp- gate in direction of Spain; back to Roland at Porte Lice, where he (Bernard) will stay
- 189r, bottom of page (attacco alla porta di Noble da cui escono i pastori): People leaving- ladies with baskets on head, peasant, to the right going right, and cattle; one group of Christians to the left, in the swamp, with the lead man wearing a mask (!); another attacking the gate guards at the gate with their swords. This is Oliver’s battle segment
- 196r, bottom, above one line of text (battaglia sotto le mura di Noble): Christians to the left, swords out led by man in red on white horse; pagans outside walls with lead man down by red man’s sword; tower to the right. Hestous’s battle here, with Gerard
- 197v, bottom of the page (battaglia sotto le mura di Noble): basically the same as before, but a little more centered in on the wounded man
- 198r, middle of the page (battaglia sotto le mura di Noble): two men in red on white horses with visors down, pagan in pink falling off his horse- Hecubar killed by Ogier? (10146-48)
- 198v, bottom above two lines of text (morte di Gerarz): up closer, man in pink with sword in nect of man in red on white horse; tower always to the right; can’t tell if many are on foot
- 199r, middle of page (morte di Gerarz): man and horse down; all on foot (Gerarz had been fighting Filidés), who gives up on 199v (vv. 10215-19)- they get off horses to surrender
- 204r, middle of page (Filide si fa battezzare da Turpino): Turpin in red, no other indication of his identity. This is actually two scenes- on the left, a tower, with Roland looking out the tower [and seeing the men advancing on Pamplune (vv. 10459-10479), one presumes], then to its right, inside the palace (v. 10491), Turpin baptizing Filidés in a pan; Roland is to his left, with another figure behind him; a gateway to their right at the edge of the miniature
- 206r, bottom of page (scontro sotto le mura di Noble): to left, led by man on white horse in center and with mostly back to reader, swords out toward other men under the towers; also a man on white horse in red, though. Figure down on ground in foreground by tower
- 206v, bottom of page (Rolando uccide due pagani): man in red on white horse with lance in one man on ground; another in foreground on ground (both on backs) with something sticking out of him. Above the frame on each side, pennons: on the left, in front, red with white crossed bar and white dot; behind it, blue with bits of white visible, unclear what; yellow with balc part of lozenge and part of two dots; and only right band of green. On the right, by the tower, a red flag with
- 207v, center of page (not in Bisson): someone wounded in the castle, in bed, with attendants (on right); on left, battle continues; red flag with star; white and green, divided; yellow with black diamond (second two incompletely visible behind red one); none on the other side
- 208r a, top of page below two lines of text (battaglia): Ogier kills Steluz de Bargelone, hitting him in the middle of his chest (Ogier on the left, Steluz on the right)
- 208r b, bottom of page (battaglia): Olivier kills of Asillex of Gerone, knocking him to the ground (note that the winning lance is on the opposite side here, Olivier comes from the left, Asillex the right)
- 208v, at bottom of page above one line of text (battaglia): group of pagans attack; one kills Ranbauz. White horse to the left, ahead of a group of men (perhaps Roland? In pink), all on horses and armed, coming out of rocks; to the right, all on dark horses, outside of a city
- 209v a, below five lines of text (battaglia presso Noble): armed horseman on the right, in front of town, slicing opposing man who is bent over forward on his horse. Lines of red draining onto the ground. Roland cutting off a pagan’s head
- 209v b, at the bottom of the page, four lines below first illumination on page (battaglia sotto Noble): pennon, red with gold design (? faded), held by horseman on the right, pointing to the left; still outside of the city. Red lines through the middle of the illumination, coming down from the end of the pennon to the ground. Horseman on the right with the pennon has his visor up, Corsidés, holding Landrais’s pennon.
- 210r, two lines above the bottom of the page (battaglia sotto Noble): again, two lines of fighters; Roland, the horseman on the right, is cutting horseman on the left, whose right arm and head Roland has cut off (these are on the ground, still in armor), v. 10765, cutting him as if he were a piece of cloth. Blood is spilling from wound
- 211r a, below 12 lines of text (battaglia sotto Noble): mass battle versus the pagans
- 211r b, below five more lines of text, running all the way to the bottom of the page with no margin (battaglia sotto Noble): Anseis hits Mellias with a heavy mace and knocks the pagan, to the ground. Anseis is holding a weapon that is not a sword
- 211v a, below six lines of text (battaglia presso Noble): Chalastes (brother of Mellias) sees his brother on the ground and advances on the Christian army, killing an Englishman (still outside the city wall)
- 211v b, below seven more lines of text (battaglia presso Noble): Hestous hits Chalastes in the face to avenge his countryman, and cuts off his head (still outside the city wall)
- 212r, bottom of page (una parte dell’esercito si ritira): pagans see their men down and begin to flee through the fields and woods, followed by the Christians from the left outside the city. In the center, Folqenor sees that he is isolated and wants to flee, but Olivier catches him and cuts his head off with the ventail by a stream. To the right, a group of horsemen in red and pink are heading into the woods
- 216r, top of page, under 6 lines (Carlomagno schiaffeggia Rolando): the blond Roland in his parti-colored outfit (red and white) is on his knees, bareheaded before Charlemagne who is in blue decorated with gold fleurs-de-lys; two men are behind Charlemagne, but it is not clear who. One is in a red hooded cape (Turpin?); the other is mostly concealed by the first
- 217r, bottom of the page (Rolando lascia l’accampamento cristiano): red and white quarter, small pennon; green and red tent behind him (left)
- 217v, center of page (Oliviero ed Estout): Estout is in red; both short skirts, pink and red
- 218r, top of page (Estout parla a Carlomagno): leaning forward; three advisors behind Charlemagne, red cape, blue cape and pink partially hidden
- 218v, bottom of page (Carlomagno discute con i paladini): beside him, on his right, red cape
- 219r, below five lines of text at top (Carlomagno discute con i paladini): Red cape behind him; pink cape partially visible to red’s right
- 220r, middle of page (intervento di Salomone): Charlemagne with red cape behind him, tents with blue top and basic fleur-de-lys in white; facing group of men on foot
- 221r, middle of page (i paladini rendono omaggio a Carlomagno): Charlemagne seated with red cape right behind him, and pink cape (but not face) visible behind red; men on their knees to the reader’s left, in front of Charlemagne
Roland is away
- 221v, at bottom of page above two lines of text (battaglia a Pamplona): Charlemagne is at the left. Charlemagne only in blue with crown (no fleurs-de-lys); archers outside town shooting at men on horseback heading into fields
- 222r, center of the page (riposo notturno nel campo cristiano): to left, Charlemagne in bed, white beard, in tent; crescent moon and stars on dark blue toward center and right, with the city to the far right
__________________________ no Turpin_________________
- 222v, middle of page (Rolando giunge presso una fontana): cartoon like, two frames, Roland twice- On the left, he is riding with his sword out in forest; then he is at a fountain, still on horseback
- 223r, middle of page (Rolando giunge presso una fontana): Roland has dismounted. He is at the fountain itself. His horse, to the left of the frame, is eating grass
- 223v, bottom of the page (Rolando addormentato): trees to the left, horse eating grass, saddle on the ground, and Roland asleep in front of the fountain to the right
- 224v, middle of the page (Rolando arriva sulla costa e scorge una barca): there are three figures in it; funny design on the sail; one sailor seems to wear a black mask over his eyes
- 225v, three lines from the top of the page (uccisione dei turchi): Roland killing two on the shore; white-haired man looking on from the sailboat, with a second figure on the right in the boat, at the very edge of the page and partially destroyed by page damage
- 226r, middle of the page (Rolando parla con Baudor): Roland with three men, all hooded; first pink with red, and dead men in brown at their feet on the shore
- 226v, middle of the page (Rolando parla con Baudor): closer up view of Roland with the same men
- 227r, bottom of the page above four lines of text (imbarco di Rolando): Roland on ship with scudiero and three men
- 228r, top of page below five lines of text (dono del tesoro a Rolando): men giving box with gold in middle to Roland
- 231v a, middle of page under eight lines of text (sbarco di Rolando): at the left, man in pink handing Roland’s horse out to him, with the bow of the boat visible in the background; Roland in the center (in red and white, quartered) leading the horse; grey tower and wall to the far right (some vegetation in between him and the tower in the background)
- 231v b, above four lines at the bottom, below five lines in the center (ringraziamento a Baudor): boat close to shore, with three figures reaching out to Roland, now on horseback, who reaches back toward them; the grey tower still to the right (same vegetation behind him here)
- 232r, above five lines at the bottom of the page (arrivo ad una corte): king to right, white-haired, crowned with beard; by tent outside city
- 232v, at the top of the page below two lines of text (Dionés, figlia del sultano, non vuole sposare il vecchio re Malquidant):
- 233r, top of the page (Dionés, figlia del sultano, non vuole sposare il vecchio re Malquidant):
- 233v a, top of page (Dionés, figlia del sultano, non vuole sposare il vecchio re Malquidant): two crowned white-bearded kings front and center facing each other, seated on background of tents and with armed men behind them; red dress on left with right hand raised, finger pointing. To the right, four women visible: one in pink dress with white underskirt, one in red, sketched one in green, face more toward reader; another in green with just the back of silhouette visible since blocked by those in front
- 233v b, center of page (Dionés, figlia del sultano, non vuole sposare il vecchio re Malquidant): similar, but both with scepters of rule; red-dress seated now, pink-dress standing with right hand raised; women to far right: one very clearly pictured also in pink with white under-dress, two others only back half of silhouette visible since blocked by one in front
- 234r, center of page (Dionés, figlia del sultano, non vuole sposare il vecchio re Malquidant): blonde man in green to the left stepping forward to the two seated kings; king in pink reaching out right hand. Ladies to the right again, front in pink really only one visible, others blocked; city in the margin to right
- 234v, at the bottom of the page (presentazione di Rolando): armed men; King in red, frontal, seated; space with Roland standing, facing right; man in red behind, partially blocked; king in pink holding Roland’s hands (Roland in quartered outfit), partially standing. Ladies to right, pink one with hooked nose now, two behind her; small city in the right margin
- 239r, above two lines of text at the bottom of the page (Rolando conosce Dionés): Armed men on the left, tents behind; red-dressed king seated, facing ¾ to left; Roland (quartered outfit) standing in space in the middle; pink-dressed king (sitting?) at bench; red-dressed man behind; pind-dressed lady on her knees, red-dressed lady behind her, with two other bits of ladies partially visible further to the right, and building (here square crenellations!) in right margin
- 240v, below four lines at the top (intromissione di Pelias): armed men; king in red; man in green (Pelias?); man in red behind; king in pink; Rolando (in quartered outfit) facing left; three ladies, one in pink only with face, others blocked, and just one bit of building behind in the margin
- 241r, middle of page (vestizione di Pelias): armed men on right, one carrying a helmet; one on each side of man in green already in leg-armor; right of center, two kings sitting together facing left, tent behind them; two ladies on right, with one tower of city behind them
- 241v, bottom of page (Pelias sale a cavallo): to the left, horse caparisoned in red with white designs (six-pointed), green-dressed man from back getting on; horse held by two armed men in red; white tent and small piece of wall in right margin
- 242v, top below five lines of text (Rolando saluta Dionés): white tent at left; a couple of armed men; Roland with arm out, Diones with two women (one in red, face visible also) in profile; kins on bench (this time pink first, red second) under tent with armed men, all facing left; piece of building
- 243r, top under four lines of text (saluto di Rolando al sultano): tents and armed men; red-dressed seated king near center facing right, a few armed men around him; two ladies and Roland facing right before pink-dressed king (seated) and city wall
- 244r, middle of page (Rolando riceve lo scudo di Dionés): Roland on his horse facing right, receiving green shield with black figure on it from Dionés and two other ladies in profile (in red, face visible too, facing him); to left, tents, two kings (red in front of pink, both standing) and armed men, city
- 244v, middle of page (Rolando in attesa del duello): Roland to the left, with red skinny banner; red and pink kings seated, other figures, including standing ladies to right (pink and red) and city wall
- 245v, bottom of page above two lines of text (duello fra Rolando e Pelias): interesting that Roland fights with green shield against green knight
- 247r, middle of page (duello fra Rolando e Pelias): to the left, an armed figure on a brown horse (Pelias) caparisoned in red with which designs, and a matching shield; he fights an armed figure on a white horse, with white upper body covering and red skirt (Roland), whose shield is green with a black design on it
- 249v, above four lines at the bottom of the page (prosegue il duello dopo l’uccisione dei cavalli): the green knight on the left in front of the red-draped dead horse and Roland in red and white with the green shield in front of his dead white horse fight, viewed by the two crowned kings, and two women in front of tents to the right, and a few helmeted men in the background
- 250r, four lines above the bottom of the page (prosegue il duello dopo l’uccisione dei cavalli): similar to the previous, with viewers nearer the combattants, and a city tower and wall to the right behind the tents in the background
- 250v, four lines above the bottom of the page (prosegue il duello dopo l’uccisione dei cavalli): to the left, the two continue fighting in front of their dead horses; center, the long-bearded king, a figure in red, and the other king, are seated on what appears to be a bench in front of the tent and city, while behind them is the tent and the two ladies. In the background of the illumination behind the bench are other helmeted figures
- 251r, one line above the bottom of the page (prosegue il duello dopo l’uccisione dei cavalli): similar to before, with the kings standing again
- 252r, top of the page (prosegue il duello dopo l’uccisione dei cavalli): Roland has hit Pelias’s helmet—his sword is on it—and blood is spurting out vv. 13065-13069); the horses remain as their backdrop; the kings are two the center, the ladies and other viewers to the right, with a tent in the background and the city wall and tower behind them in the right margin
- 252v, top of the page (pausa nel duello): the two combattants stand with their swords resting on the ground and their visors up; Pelias is bleeding. Their horses still form their backdrop. To the right, the two kings are talking, and the observers are watching from in front of the tent. A tiny line of city/wall appears at the right margin
- 253v, middle of the page (fuga di Pelias): in front of the dead horses, Roland faces the right margin, his sword up, and Pelias also faces right, heading toward the audience. The kings and some assistants are seated, the tent their backdrop, and the ladies are between them and the city
- 254r a, top of page, under three lines of text (uccisione di Pelias): Roland in his distinctive red and white, visor up, stands over Pelias, his red shield over his chest, lying on the ground with blood flowing out. To the right, the usual sitting kings, tents, ladies and city wall and tower
- 254r b, bottom of page (festeggiamenti): a tent on the left and attendants (one holding his helmet), with Roland, unhelmeted and in red and white, gazes right toward the city. He still wears his arm and leg armor. The women, about half his height, stand a bit to the right of center with their hands out toward him. The king in pink and his men, in front of a larger tent also stand, with the wall and tower in the right margin
- 254v, middle of page toward the bottom (Rolando festeggiato): similar to earlier scene: tent to the left, attendants, Roland in the center where the king looks as if he is just about to embrace him (or has just embraced him), an attendant to his right, then the two ladies by the city in the right margin
- 255r, top of page, under four lines of text (lutto per la morte di Pelias): with a red shield, crossed in white from top left to lower right, with those six-petalled designs in two opposite corners, the dead knight in green lies on the ground; the second king is on his knees, distressed, with attendants. To the right, watchers, tents, and city again
- 255v, top of page, under three lines of text (funerale di Pelias): two scenes, divided by tents in the middle. To the left, city walls and tower; second king (Malquidant) and attendants face Soldain, rebuking him for the loss of his nephew; to the right side of the tents, men carry the body of Pelias on a black board of some kind up the gangplank onto the ship; a hill with a path forms its backdrop
- 256r a, middle of page (partenza di Malquidant): cartoon-like, with two phases: getting onto ship, then in it (no real division other than the water)
- 256r b, middle of page, three lines below a (partenza di Malquidant): similarly, two phases of Malquidant’s return home: getting off the ship with the assistance of his helpers, then marching at head of his mounted army with 3 banners and a few men with pennons marching into the right margin
- 256v, middle of page (Rolando discute con il sultano): from left to right, far left, armed men; three ladies; attendants, some in helmets; Roland in three-quarters face toward the right margin; the king (sultan) facing him with more armed men to the right also facing Roland. There is a tent behind the king and his footmen in helmets
- 257r, bottom of page, above three lines of text (la corte in cammino verso il palazzo): Roland and sultan entering the city to the right, ladies and court behind them trailing to the left margin
- 257v, center of page (consiglio reale): council inside city- three crowned kings and two others (Sultan at head of the group, facing the left, four others facing him)
- 258r a, top of page under two lines of text (consiglio reale): more council, similar to above
- 258r b, bottom of the page, (consiglio reale): more council, similar to above
- 259r a, top of page under five lines of text (consiglio reale): council with six (three kings): Roland (in his usual red and white) stands before the Sultan, who sits with the other members of the council
- 259r b, bottom of page (consiglio reale): council with one person, blond Roland in white and red, in doorway, three kings, two others (Sultan in his crown faces left, others face him)
- 259v, top of page under four lines of text (il sultano parla con Rolando): council continued; same six, Roland and another crowned figure (Clador of Charsidoine, v. 13396) standing before the Sultan
- 260r, top of page under five lines of text (il sultano parla con Rolando): council continued: Roland speaks to Sultan
- 260v, middle of page toward the top (prosegue il consiglio): council continued, three kings and two others; Roland in front of Sultan, refusing marriage to his daughter as being undeserving
- 261r, bottom of page above two lines of text (il sultano si rivolge a Rolando): council continued: three kings, two others, Roland on knees accepting a wand from Sultan
- 261v, lower middle of page (banchetto nella corte): Sultan to the right, sitting under a projecting cover at a table perpendicular to the others; to the left, a table with wine and other items; at the table, left to right, three men then Roland looking to the left toward the Sultan, who is being served by three men (boys?- they are smaller)
- 262r, middle of page (il sultano e la regina): the king (Sultan) (on the bed, reclining) and queen (standing) at the foot of the bed, in bedchamber with one other (Dionés?); writing at the bottom in the manuscript folio, in the margin: Jo andrea strace seri….. Jo vicenzo crisi jr n (?)
- 262v, bottom of page (il sultano e la regina): bedchamber, with the bed made now. The king and queen are standing, with another individual by the column on the right (hard to tell who—damaged—but dressed in the same color as daughter in the previous scene)
- 263r, bottom of page (la camera da letto reale) – two rooms: to the left, with the head of the bed at the left margin, the king (Sultan) in his nightgown and a red hat, with three servers helping, one at the head of the bed, two at the foot lifting something red (a blanket to cover the bed?); to right, two boys (?) in bed, two servers helping, again with a red cloth at the foot of the bed: perhaps Lionés (Roland’s secret name) and the Sultan’s son?
- 263v, at bottom, above five lines of text (Rolando osserva un tempio pagano): three scenes: to the left, Roland in the left margin with a companion, facing the Sultan and a few men, seeming to shake the Sultan’s hand; in the middle, Roland and the Sultan stand facing the right, the Sultan with his left hand reaching toward the far right, to where a small temple with a naked figure is under the center. The Sultan there is kneeling to (our left in front, with Roland to the right, facing the temple in the center (vv. 13629-13631)
- 264r, bottom of page (ritorno al palazzo del sultano): the Sultan leads Roland and his entourage back to the residence; from the tower above a loggia in the piano nobile, the queen and her daughter look down on their return (right margin)
- 265r, middle of page (duello): Roland and Sanson – two scenes; in the first Roland is teaching Sanson to skirmish; to the right, the two talk: Roland is giving him a lecture on how to behave (vv. 13769-13715)
- 265v a, top of page under two lines of text (Rolando impara insegna il gioco della quintana): Roland teaches the local noblemen the quintaine in the streets (v. 13718).
- 265v b, bottom of page (Rolando fatto balivo di Persia): council called by Soudan when he hears the news of Malquidant calling up his men. Orders that Roland come to meet with him; there are six men (two with crowns) and Roland standing facing right, in front of the Soudan who sits with his back to the tower at the right margin
- 270r a, middle of page (il gioco della quintana): similar to f. 265v a; perhaps as part of the celebration of the marriage mentioned on the previous folio?
- 270r b, bottom of page (battesimo): baptism of Aquilant (vv. 14008-14010) at the instigation of Huon, lord of Blois by Marcel the patriarch (end of celebration of Anseis’s and Dionés wedding at Jerusalem)
- 270v a, middle of page (banchetto): banquet in a colonnaded hall (nb women at the far left, end of the table, and with interesting headgear); Soudan and another king at head table perpendicular to the main table, and 4 small servers on the front side of the tables
- 270v b, bottom of page (Rolando condotto al sultano): two scenes divided by a door in the middle; all indoors. To the left, Roland in front of three men, holding one by the hand (Patriarch!), his other arm in the doorway: other two must be Sanson and Huon; to the right, the seated Soudan facing left, with Roland and the same three men in front of him, facing right towards the seated ruler
- 273v, middle of page (ingresso al castello): at the tower, inside the walls, the king is leading the way, with Roland right behind him and other men behind them, some also with crowns, going to eat after mass before their departure (v. 14174)
- 274r, bottom of page (il sultano e la regina di Persia): Roland and his men go to wish the queen farewell, so that she can see her son Aquilant off
- 275r, middle of page (cavaliere presentato alla regina): Sansone tells his mother that Anseis, her son-in-law, will remain to help her; she embraces him here at his departure (men to the left, women to the right)
- 275v a, top of page under two lines of text (imbarco di Rolando con il cavaliere): Soudan and his men on the left see Roland and his men off (Sansone is on the plank walking into the boat); to the right we see Roland in his bi-colored outfit with his men at sea
- 275v b, middle of page, four lines below the first illumination (ritorno del sultano a palazzo): Soudan and his men in the center of the column on horseback are seen on what seems to be a parapet about to enter the gateway into the city
- 277r, bottom of page above four lines of text (sbarco di Rolando): Roland and his men stand to the right, facing left, with his horse (white with red trimmings) coming down the gangplank; other brown horses are visible behind it, all facing right
- 277v, bottom of page (Rolando [e compagni] a cavallo): Roland is riding with his three companions toward a hill, armed but with their visors up
- 278r, bottom of page (un cadavere [nudo] scoperto da Rolando): Roland’s horse is bucking before a corpse to the right of the illumination; the other three men are mounted behind him
- 279r a, middle of page (incontro di Rolando [e compagnia] con tre cavalieri): Roland and his men meet three other horsemen; Roland and his men are on the left, the others are on the right, they face each other, in vegetation that is as high as the horses’ bellies
- 279r b, bottom of page (incontro di Rolando [e compagnia] con tre cavalieri): Roland’s three men have their lances out; Roland, in front of them, is turning back toward them with his right arm extended. The facing three also have lances standing at rest
- 279v, bottom of page above two lines of text (incontro di Rolando [e compagnia] con tre cavalieri): Roland approaches the three men on horseback while his men remain to the left, allowing him to advance to scout out who is there. All the mean have red pennons on their lances (or poles); they identify themselves as robbers
- 280v, bottom of the page (uccisione di Aquilant): Roland and two of his men on horseback remain at the left margin of the illumination; Aquilant is impaled in the center of the vignette. The three opposing knights have their lances pointed at him or in his body (he had attacked without word given first, and was killed)
- 281r, center of page (vendetta): Roland at left edge, outside of vignette with Sanson; Huon goes after the three robbers with his sword drawn, through the vegetation
- 281v, bottom of page above three lines (ripresa del cammino): Roland, in his quartered outfit, leads two other men into a forest
- 282v, bottom of the page (arrivo di Rolando ad un monastero): Roland stands outside what seems to be a wood fortification with a church and tower inside; a brown-habited, bearded man looks out the window as Roland gestures up with his right hand
- 283r, bottom of page (Rolando prende la croce): Roland is on his knees, reaching up to take a cross from the monk’s/abbott’s hands; the hermit is in a tower
- 283v, center of page (Rolando prende la croce): he’s bowing over his knees, holding the red cross in gloved hands
- 287v, top of page below 4 lines (un angelo prende le sembianze di Rolando): the angel has wings, but in red and white like Roland; all are on foot
- 288r, bottom of page (un angelo prende le sembianze di Rolando): the angel is on horseback now, and two the others sleep, with their horses in the trees behind them, to our right
- 289r, center of page (Rolando nel monastero): Roland is with the hermit eating seated at a table. On the left is the tower and church, they are in a room on the right. The wooden fortress (like a fence) frames the bottom of the illustration, and a piece of it rises, one to the left and one to the right
- 291r, top of page, under 1 line of text (l’eremita Sansone prega mentre Rolando dorme): the frame is divided into two effectively, with the church and a room with a tower to the right. The hermit is on his knees praying in the first segment; Roland is sleeping in the second, his head on his right arm. He is in his helm and gloves to sleep
- 291v, top of page, below four lines of text (morte dell’eremita): again in two parts: first, Roland standing giving the host to the hermit who is kneeling; to the right, in the other room, Roland prays while eremita lying down, with angels above carrying away the hermit’s soul (these are small and grisaille, holding a blanket with the upper body of the soul visible above it)
- 292r, bottom of the page above two lines of text (Rolando ritrova i compagni): again in two parts: first, hermitage with Roland about to mount his horse, he has his right foot raised; second, Roland on horse riding toward his two sleeping companions under a tree by a fountain. Their horses are behind the fountain
- 292v, bottom of the page (Rolando in cammino): Roland with the two companions, in the woods, all on horseback; they are to the left of the middle
- 293r, middle of the page (Rolando in cammino): Roland is riding with his two companions, turning back to talk to the others; he is in front, so they are not riding exactly together
- 293v, bottom of page above two lines of text (Rolando giunge in un prato): the three are on foot, leading their horses toward tents outside a wall; there is a bushy green thing above their heads
- 294r, center of page (attacco da parte di un cavaliere): three knights on horseback coming out of a field on the left; knight in red on white horse with sword raised coming from right, where two tents appear outside a bit of wall: Rainer lord of Nantes sees Roland, Sanses/Sanson and Hue; when he recognizes Roland, goes to announce it to Charlemagne
- 294v, middle toward the top of folio (notizie per Carlomagno): two men in pink leading white horse, coming out of what looks like a wheat field (maybe intended to be forest), on the left; right, white-bearded, crowned Charlemagne, dressed in blue with fleur-de-lys, sitting under tent; advisors on side, Naimes on his right (our left), Turpin in pink with white hood at the right of the frame (Charlemagne’s left), helmeted men visible around behind the tent. Rainer dismounts at Charlemagne’s tent
295r (notizie per Carlomagno) (no miniature here)
- 295v, middle toward the top of folio (not in Bisson): Many armed men all around in circle, mostly facing reader, but one in red with round bacinet, his back toward the reader; Rainer on bended knee before Charlemagne and his advisors (Naimes to the right and Turpin in a pink hood to the left behind him). All the knights want to leave, Charlemagne angry; Rainer announces Roland and Hue of Blois’s return
- 296r, bottom of folio above two lines of text (notizie per Carlomagno): Charlemagne in center, frontal view in blue with fleur-de-lys outfit, crowned and white-bearded on a bench; Naimes to his right (left to us), and pink hood (Turpin) to his left (our right), with tents to the far right. Knight in pink to side of Naimes, with his hand raised (= Rainer) so speaking, explaining himself; perhaps the armed man in red on the other side is Olivier or Hestous?
- 296v, bottom of folio above two lines of text (Carlomagno si avvia verso il bosco): Charlemagne and men on horseback; Naimes at his right side (to our left), but ahead of him in the line of march, turning back to speak with him. There are two tents in the background (at left side of page); white-haired and bearded Charlemagne holds his wand of office and is dressed in blue with gold fleur-de-lys, wearing a crown
- 297r, bottom of folio above one line of text (incontro tra Oliviero e Rolando): “Forest” on left: Roland (now in his quartered outfit) with the two other men, embraced by man in pink (Rainer, v. 15495); to the right, Charlemagne on white horse looking backwards, Naimes to his right, but a little further back; other armed men on horseback also with tent behind them (10/12 peers, v. 15470)
- 298r, top of folio, under four lines of text (arrivo di Charlemagne): Roland (quartered outfit) and two men with Rainer and man in red (Oliver); another getting off his white horse in the center, facing left (perhaps two frames of story?); to right, as always, Charlemagne and Naimes with knights on horseback
- 298v, bottom of folio (accoglienza a Rolando): Three (Roland +2 and two other men in red), reaching for each others’ hands; Charlemagne, Naimes and armed men on horseback to the right still
- 299r, bottom of folio (accoglienza a Rolando): smaller, up close: Roland with kneeling man in pink; four others behind him; Charlemagne + maisnie nearer, horses still with right front leg up! Naimes beside Charlemagne, on his right
- 300r (accoglienza a Rolando): middle of folio. Roland and four others on left, still (no “forest” visible any longer); group of armed men moving toward him in center (5 +/-); Charlemagne still with group in same formation to the right with a tent visible. Naimes to Charlemagne’s right
- 300v, middle of folio (accoglienza a Rolando): Whole group on the ground now around Roland; Charlemagne and mesnie now moving toward Roland (both legs raised of horses), tent behind. Naimes to Charlemagne’s right (Charlemagne is in the foreground)
- 301r, middle of folio (accoglienza a Rolando): Smaller version of 300v, and nearer; Naimes beside Charlemagne (who is in the foreground), to his right
- 302r, middle of folio (rappacificazione fra Charlemagne e Rolando): All on foot; lots of armed men around; center of frame, Roland on the left (quartered outfit), Charlemagne to the right of center, the two embracing surrounded by the helmeted men (no civilian dress visible)
- 302v, middle of folio (rappacificazione fra Carlomagno e Rolando): Armed men to the left, Roland and Charlemagne in the middle, and Naimes just behind Charlemagne toward the right margin, and a few others in helms behind him toward the margin/frame
 “Coif” here refers to the white cloth covering, much like a skullcap, sometimes with ties on the front corners, seen on many servants and some others in this manuscript. While quilted versions of them might have been used as arming caps (under a helmet) the function of these is not always clear. For arming caps, see DeVries, K., Medieval Military Technology, Peterborough, Ontario CA: Broadview Press, 1992, pp. 71, 83.
 The MS is corrected, with edits added above the line, words crossed out and rewritten above, as well as omissions inserted with a caret within the line.
1928 Ce qui reste d’un manuscrit perdu de l’Entrée d’Espagne, «Archivum Romanicum», 12, 1928, 233-264.
Ahlers, Christian – Bianco, Andrea
2005 Entrée d’Espagne, in Franco–italien et épopée franco-italienne, éd. par Gunter Holtus et Peter Wunderli, Heidelberg, Winter, 2005 (Grundriss der romanischen Literaturen des Mittelalters, vol. III. Les épopées romanes, t. 1/2, fasc. 10), 300-302.
2008 Il fondo francese della Biblioteca Marciana di Venezia, Roma, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2008 (“Sussidi eruditi”, 76), 94-103.
Braghirolli, Willelmo – Meyer, Paul – Paris, Gaston
1880 Inventaire des manuscrits en langue française possédés par Francesco Gonzaga I capitaine de Mantoue mort en 1407, «Romania», IX, 1880, 497-514, 505-514.
1897 I codici francesi della R. Biblioteca Nazionale di S. Marco in Venezia, Venezia, Olschki, 1897, 58-63.
1925 La miniature italienne du Xe au XVIe siècle, Paris–Brussel, Librairie Nationale d’Art et d’Histoire, 1925, 28.
1984 Les illustrations des manuscrits français des Gonzague à la Bibliothèque de Saint-Marc, in Essor et fortune de la Chanson de geste dans l’Europe et l’Orient latin. Actes du IXe Congrès International de la Société Rencesvals pour l’Étude des Épopées Romanes (Padoue-Venise. 29 août – 4 septembre 1982), 2 voll., Modena, Mucchi Editore, 1984, vol. II, 585-616, 594-596.
De Mandach, André
1961 La geste de Charlemagne et de Roland, Genève-Paris, Droz-Minard, 1961.
1989 Chanson de geste et héraldique. Les blasons des grandes familles padouanes dans l’Entrée d’Espagne, «Cultura Neolatina», XLIX, 1989, 179-202.
Ferrari, Giorgio Emanuele
1961a Codici Marciani ed edizioni italiane antiche di epopea carolingia. Catalogo di mostra in occasione del II. Congresso della Société Rencesvals in Venezia (Settembre 1961), Venezia, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, 1961.
1961b Documenti Marciani e principale letteratura sui codici veneti di epoca carolingia; supplemento al catalogo di mostra (sez. III) in occasione del II. Congresso della Société Rencesvals in Venezia, Venezia, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, 1961.
2011 Anonimo Padovano, L’Entrée d’Espagne. Rolando da Pamplona all’Oriente, a cura di M. Infurna, Roma, Carocci («Biblioteca medievale», 133), 2011, 37-38.
Lejeune, Rita – Stiennon, Jacques
1966 La légende de Roland dans l’art du Moyen Age, Bruxelles, Arcade, 1966, 2 voll., I, 264.
2003 L’Entrée d’Espagne. Manoscritto marciano Fr. Z 21 (=257). La storia e l’aspetto materiale, in La Entrada en España. Poema épico del siglo XIV en franco-italiano, Valencia, Ediciones Grial, 2003, 291-318.
1954 Mostra storica nazionale della miniatura. Catalogo, Firenze, 1954, 159.
2009 L’Entrée d’Espagne della Biblioteca Marciana di Venezia nel contesto della illustrazione cavalleresca padana del Medioevo. [Tesi di dottorato. Università degli Studi di Padova. Relatore Prof.ssa Giordana Canova].
1964 La Pittura veneziana del Trecento, Venezia-Roma, Istituto per la Collaborazione Culturale, 1964, 58.
Ruggeri, Ruggero M.
1961 Dall’Entrée d’Espagne e dai Fatti di Spagna alla materia di Spagna dell’inventario gonzaghesco, «Cultura Neolatina», XXI, 1961, 182-190.
1955 La miniatura italiana, Milano, Electa Editrice, 1955, 38.
1977-1978 Il frammento reggiano dell’Entrée d’Espagne: raffronto filologico col codice marciano francese XXI (= 257), «Atti dell’Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti», 136, 1977-1978, 407-424.
1913 L’Entrée d’Espagne. Chanson de geste franco-italienne publiée d’après le manuscrit unique de Venise par Antoine Thomas, Paris, Firmin-Didot («Société des anciens textes français»), 1913, 2 vol.; ristampa anastatica con una premessa di Marco Infurna, Firenze, Olschki, 2007, 2 vol.
1912a Le miniature dell’Entrée d’Espagne della Biblioteca Marciana (Codice fr. XXI), Scritti varii di erudizione e di critica in onore di Rodolfo Renier, Torino, Fratelli Bocca, 1912, 747-753.
1912b La pittura e la miniatura nella Lombardia. Dai più antichi monumenti alla metà del Quattrocento, Milano, Hoepli, 1912, 165-66.
1946-1947 Quelques miniatures vénitiennes du XIVe siècle, «Speculum», I, 1946-1947, 70-74.
1951 Il Trecento, Torino, Utet, 1951, 847-848.
Scheda a cura di Serena Modena; contributi di Francesca Gambino e di Leslie Zarker Morgan.
Ultimo aggiornamento: 7 settembre 2021.